Saturday, December 16, 2006


Makarov PM

Makarov PM

Makarov PM
Type pistol
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
Used by Soviet Union
Production history
Designer Nikolai Fyodorovich Makarov
Length 161.5 mm (6.34 in)
Barrel length 93.5 mm (3.83 in)

Cartridge 9 x 18 mm PM (9mm Makarov)
Caliber 9mm
Action blowback
Muzzle velocity 315 m/s
Effective range 50 m (54.7 yd)
Feed system 8-round detachable box magazine
Sights blade front, notch rear (adjustable for drift)

The Makarov PM (Pistolet Makarova, Russian: Пистолет Макарова ПМ) is a semi-automatic pistol which was designed in the late 1940s by Russian firearms designer Nikolai Fyodorovich Makarov. For many years, it was the Soviet Union's standard military side arm.



The Makarov was the result of a competition held to design a replacement for the aging Tokarev TT-33 semi-automatic pistol. The TT had been loosely derived from the FN Model 1903 automatic pistol and was, by 1945, deemed too large and lacking in stopping power and safety features for a modern service pistol [1] [citation needed]. Rather than building his gun around an existing cartridge, Nikolai Makarov designed a new round, the 9 x 18 mm PM, based on the popular Browning 9 x 17 mm/.380 ACP cartridge. In the interests of simplicity and economy, the Makarov pistol was to be of straight blowback operation, and the 9 x 18 mm round was found to be the most powerful which could be fired safely from such a design. Although the given dimension was 9 mm, the bullet was actually 9.3 mm in diameter, being shorter and wider and therefore incompatible with pistols chambered for the popular 9 mm Luger/Parabellum round. This meant that Soviet ammunition was unusable in NATO firearms, and NATO forces in a conflict would not be able to gather ammunition from fallen Soviet soldiers or Soviet munition stockpiles[citation needed].

Makarov's design, the Pistolet Makarova (PM), was, in 1951, selected over the competition on account of its simplicity (it had few moving parts), economy, ease of manufacture, accuracy, and reasonable power. It remained in service among Soviet military and police until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991[citation needed]. Many ex-Eastern Bloc police continue to employ Cold War- era Makarovs, due to their simplicity and reliability[citation needed]. The Makarov has also become a popular concealed carry gun in the United States[citation needed], and variants remain in production in both Russia and Bulgaria to this day.

The Makarov PM is being replaced by the Yarygin PYa pistol in Russian service, a process that started in 2003[2].


The Pistolet Makarova (often abbreviated to PM) is a medium-size handgun with a straight blowback action and a frame-fixed barrel. As a blowback design, the only force holding the slide closed is from the recoil spring; upon firing, the barrel and slide do not "unlock" as with a locked-breech design. Blowback designs are uncomplicated, and are often more accurate than designs which use a recoiling, tilting, or otherwise articulated barrel. Blowback-operated pistols are also limited practically by the required weight of the slide. Using conventional manufacturing techniques, the 9 x 18 mm is the largest round that can practically use blowback operation. The Makarov is relatively heavy for its small size, another desirable attribute for a blowback pistol, as a heavy slide provides greater inertia against the force of the blast, reducing felt recoil or "kick" of the 9x18 mm round.

The Makarov employs a free-floating firing pin, and has no firing pin spring or firing pin block. Although this (in theory) allows for the possibility of an accidental discharge if the pistol is dropped on its muzzle from a great height, Makarov felt that the firing pin had insufficient mass to constitute a major safety hazard. The (Bulgarian) Makarov is government approved for sale in the State of California, having passed a state DOJ-mandated drop safety test (its listing on the DOJ certified roster will expire on December 6, 2006 unless renewed).

The notable features of the Makarov are its extreme simplicity and economy of parts. Many parts perform more than one task. For example, the slide stop is also the ejector. Similarly, the mainspring powers both the hammer and the trigger, and its lower end even serves as the magazine catch. Makarov pistol parts seldom break in normal usage, and they are easily replaced with very few tools if they do break.


The Makarov has a DA/SA or "Double Action, Single Action" operating system. After loading the pistol and charging the slide, the Makarov can be carried with the hammer down and the safety engaged. To fire, the slide-mounted safety is pushed down to the "fire" position, after which the user simply squeezes the trigger. The act of squeezing the trigger for the first shot also cocks the hammer, an action which necessitates a long, heavy trigger pull. The firing of the round and cycling of the action pre-cocks the hammer for subsequent shots, which are then fired Single Action with a short, light trigger pull. After pushing the safety up to "safe," the hammer is safely de-cocked. Operation is semi-automatic, firing as fast as the user can pull the trigger. Fired brass is ejected to the right rear of the shooter, typically traveling 5-7 feet.

The PM's standard magazine holds eight rounds. After firing the last round in the magazine, the slide locks open. After feeding a new magazine, the slide can be closed by activating a lever on the left side of the frame or by pulling the slide back to release the slide catch, either of which chambers a fresh round. The pistol is now ready for action again.

When engaged, the Makarov's safety switch blocks the hammer from hitting the rear of the firing pin. The Makarov's magazine release location is common with that of many European pistols, being located on the heel or "butt" of the handgrip. This design decision was in contrast to the frame-mounted release of the Tokarev TT-33, as this location had been observed to have a propensity for the TT's release to become snagged on clothing, or, in the heat of battle, for soldiers accidentally to release the magazines of their pistols.

As with all firearms, proper maintenance, the Rules of Gun safety, and using only the properly chambered round are imperative.

During the mid-1980's until the early 1990's access to 9 mm Makarov ammunition was limited in the United States. During this period, at least one gun writer suggested and tested the substitution of .380 ACP/9 mm Kurz ammunition in PM's[citation needed]. The weapons functioned but were inaccurate beyond short range demonstrating keyholing at medium ranges[citation needed].


Russian and ex-Eastern Bloc 9 x 18 mm PM ammunition is inexpensive and widely available. However, much of this is Berdan primed and corrosive. Ammunition claiming to be non-corrosive should be treated as corrosive if manufactured in eastern Europe (due to concerns over quality control)[citation needed].

After firing the Makarov, field strip the gun, remove the grips, and boil in water for a few minutes to remove salts.[3] This is especially important when using ammunition with corrosive primers. Bore clean and protect as you would any gun.

Explicit care must be taken to use the correct ammunition as there are several similar cartridges of 9 mm calibre which can not be fired safely or, most likely, at all in a Makarov. Similar cartridges often confused with the 9 x 18 mm PM are .380 ACP (also known as 9x17, 9 mm Short or 9 mm Kurz) and 9 x 19 mm Luger.

The correct ammunition is 9 x 18 mm PM (also known as 9 mm Makarov) for most unmodified factory pistols, although replacement barrels and civilian models chambered in .380 ACP are also available, and will require .380 ACP ammunition for safe firing.


The PM is relatively inexpensive, with prices in North America ranging from USD $150-$350 as of 2006. Rare or pristine Makarovs can command over $450, but only when in exceptional condition. As with Soviet 7.62 x 39 mm ammunition, surplus 9x18 Makarov rounds are very cheap, at about USD $0.10 a round[citation needed], though care must be taken if the round's primers are corrosive.


The Makarov was manufactured in several Eastern Bloc countries during the Cold War and afterwards; apart from Russia itself, they were East Germany, Bulgaria, China, and post-unification Germany, which also found itself with several thousand ex-GDR Makarov pistols.

The most widely known variant, the Makarov PMM, was a redesign of the original gun. In 1990, a group of engineers reworked the original Makarov, primarily by increasing the load for the cartridge. The result was nearly twice the original muzzle velocity[citation needed], and generated 25% more gas pressure. The altered cartridge, called the 9 mm Makarov High Impulse[citation needed], often uses armor piercing bullets[citation needed]. This magazine also holds 12 rounds, compared to the PM's 8 rounds. The Makarov PMM is able to use existing Makarov cartridges and has other minor modifications such as an improved hand grip as well as threaded grooves in the chamber.[1]

During the 1990's, the Russian Firearms manufacturer, Baikal, marketed various Makarov handguns in the United States under the IJ-70 model. Included were handguns in both standard and high capacity frames. They were available in .380 ACP in addition to the standard 9mm Makarov round. Some minor modifications were made to facilitate importation into the United States. It is unlikely that more will be imported in the near future due to voluntary agreements restricting the importation of small arms from Russia. Also no longer importable is the Baikal MP645K air pistol, which is known in shooting and collecting circles as the "Air Mak". It fires .177 (4.5mm) BB's propelled by CO2, with extreme realism, including a double action trigger mechanism, and slide that cycles after a shot is fired. The CO2 cartridge is housed in a modified double stack Makarov magazine, and the frame is the same as that of a double stack Makarov. The pistol is still available in the United Kingdom and various other nations in Europe and elsewhere. Despite the ban on importation, some "Air Maks" are still available on the second hand market. Due to the fixed supply, prices have more than doubled since importation ceased[citation needed].

Countries like Poland and Hungary have developed their own handgun designs that use the 9x18 mm round. Hungary developed the PA-63 and Poland has developed the P-64 and the P-83 Vanad. While similar in appearance to the PM, and chambered for the same round, these 9 mm Makarov firing pistols are often found labeled at gun shows by some US gun retailers as "Polish Makarovs" and "Hungarian Makarovs". Nonetheless, these similar designs are independent of the PM and have more in common with the Walther PP. They are simply pistols that happen to be chambered for the same 9 mm Makarov round.

As with the Simonov SKS, the market prefers Makarovs which were made in East Germany. The Bulgarian pistols are not quite as polished but are still generally regarded as being solid and reliable weapons. The Russian and Chinese Makarovs are generally not thought of highly, but still have value as collectables.[4]

Wednesday, December 13, 2006




Night-Ops Gladius Tactical Illumination Tool/Weapons Light for Fighting at Night

Posted on Monday, January 24 @ 16:53:33 PST by davidc
Tactical Lights by David Crane

For those not already aware, there's an exciting new tactical illumination tool (i.e. tactical white light/weapons light) that will be introduced at SHOT Show 2005 in a few days by a company called Night-Ops.

It's called the Gladius High-Intensity LED (Light-Emitting Diode) Multi-Purpose Illumination Tool, and it's the product of a partnership between Ken Good (a.k.a. Ken J. Good) of Strategos International and Mike Noell of Blackhawk Products Group/Blackhawk Industries.

Before starting Strategos, Mr. Good helped create the Surefire Institute force-on-force training academy where he taught the tactical employment of a tactical white light or weapon-mounted light for gunfighting in low-light conditions (nightfighting) or in complete darkness. Before that, Good co-owned and operated a force-on-force training school called Combative Concepts, Inc, which also offered courses in low-light gunfighting. Basically, Good's been teaching low-light close quarters battle (CQB)/close quarters combat (CQC) tactics and techniques to military Special Operations (SPECOPS) and law enforcement SWAT/SRT operators for quite some time, now.

The Night-Ops Gladius flashlight/tactical white light/tactical weapons light, marketed under the banner of the Blackhawk Products Group, will be...

going up against Surefire flashlights that, up until now, haven't really had any serious competition.

The four primary aspects of the Gladius that separate it from anything Surefire currently offers are:

1) It's waterproof to 50 meters (166 feet).

2) It remains functional down to this depth because its patent-pending tailcap incorporates a valve mechanism that automatically equalizes the water pressure, so the instant on/off thumb switch doesn't get activated by water pressure as you dive.

3) It also incorporates a strobe feature called "Wave Length Technology", which, according to Frank Borelli, who's written an article about the Night-Ops Gladius for the 10/25/04 issue of the Blackwater Tactical Weekly (BTW) Newsletter, "pulses the light at the optimal rate to interrupt linear thought processes and create an imbalance in your opponent". Mr. Borelli goes on to write the following about the Gladius' strobe feature "the human mind actually has a hard time processing images that come in at a certain rate and Night-Ops has designed this light specifically to be the most efficient NON-lethal NON-contact tool an officer can carry to impact his/her opponent's thought process and ability to perform directed behavior. Preliminary research shows that confronting an aggressor with this pattern of light directly into his eyes can cause reactions that are greatly to the advantage of us, the good guys. Those reactions can include: imbalance, involuntary closing of the eyes, turning the head, a loss of depth perception, a feeling of pending physical impact, and sometimes even an increase in heart and respiration rate due to the psychological stress caused by the mental overload. It is important to note that in the strobe position the light only flashes while the tailcap button is depressed."

Mr. Good has stated that the "practical testing of the strobe mode on non-compliant subjects has been simply amazing", on one of the internet forum sites.

4) It features a patent-pending "lockout" setting that essentially renders the flashlight inoperable.

The Night-Ops Gladius flashlight/tactical weapons light represents an interesting development in the tactical flashlight field, and it will be interesting to see how the competition between Night-Ops and Surefire develops. Night-Ops appears to have a veritable plethora of rather valuable patent-pending technologies in its corner that will likely prove difficult for Surefire to match.

Although, if you were to ask Mr. Good, he'd most likely tell you that there really isn't any competition between his product(s) and those of his competitors. Good had the following to say about the Gladius on one of the forum sites (edited for punctuation), "The other guys have nothing really to compare this product to. In so many ways, it simply outperforms. Without putting the Gladius into an integrating sphere (that is forthcoming), side-by-side output comparisons in a variety of environment--in terms of beam quality and output levels--were revealing. The Gladius was significantly superior in terms of intensity, color temp, and downrange data collection. When your eyes are on the business end of this light, it hits very hard. I mean, really hard. The switching and multiple modalities in one easy-to-operate package really sets this thing apart. Our goal is to provide a far superior, feature rich product at a price point below the big guys mark."

With the Gladius flashlight, it looks like Night-Ops may have just accomplished that goal. The proof, however, will be in the pudding--i.e. military Special Operations (SPECOPS) and LE SWAT/SRT operator feedback from the field--but it's a very interesting product, to say the least. Basically, they've created a waterproof/divable tactical LED flashlight (with Surefire-style insant on/off thumb activation) that's fast-selectable (one-handed-with-thumb) between settings that include strobe, dimming/re-brightening, and lockout features. Pretty good. Needless to say, these are definitely exciting times for the tactical field, particularly in the realm of the tactical accessory market. We hope we can get our hands on a Gladius flashlight for T&E sometime soon, after SHOT.

Night-Ops has established MSRP for the Gladius flashlight at $249.99. It's currently available in black, desert tan, and O.D. green.

You can contact Night-Ops by phone at 816-899-2347, or toll-free at 888-432-7966 (888-gear-zone).

If you'd like to learn how to utilize your Night-Ops Gladius tactical light effectively, DefenseReview would suggest you contact Strategos International by phone at 816-347-9771, or toll-free at 888-569-5544 (888-low-light). Or, you can contact Ken Good (Ken J. Good) directly via email at

If you would like to order your very own Gladius tactical flashlight/weapons light, click on this link to visit Strategos International's new online store,

If you click on this link, it will take you to the Night-Ops Gladius flashlight page at Strategos International's other online store,

You can contact Blackhawk Products Group/Blackhawk Industries by phone at 757-436-3101, or toll free at 800-694-5263. Mike Noell is the President/CEO of Blackhawk Products Group/Blackhawk Industries.

Click here to watch a video of the Night-Ops Gladius flashlight in action.

Click here to view the Night-Ops Gladius High Intensity LED Multi-purpose Illumination Tool (i.e. Gladius flashlight) brochure/spec sheet (PDF format).

Click here to read the Night-Ops Gladius flashlight FAQ. (PDF format)

Click here to read the updated version of Frank Borelli's Blackwater Tactical Weekly (BTW) article on the Night-Ops Gladius flashlight/tactical white light. It's well written and packed with great info on the product. The article is titled "BlackHawk + Strategos = Night-Ops!", and it's definitely worth reading. Again, this version (linked-to, above) has been updated, and is slightly different from the original article as it first appeared in the Blackwater Tactical Weekly (BTW) Newsletter.

There's also a PDF version of Frank Borelli's original Blackwater Tactical Weekly (BTW) article on the Night-Ops Gladius, located at the Night-Ops website (

Mr. Borelli is the president of Borelli Consulting, Inc. (BCI), a military and law enforcement consulting firm based in Lusby, Maryland. BCI can be contacted at 410-394-1004. You can contact Mr. Borelli directly via email at

Click here to read an in-depth review of the Night-Ops Gladius tactical flashlight at The review contains some excellent information on, and digital photos of, the Gladius. According to the Imägo Metrics website, "Imägo Metrics is a consultancy and research laboratory combining human and technology performance sciences with quality management and performance metrics.Our services accelerate the market valuation of products and processes that depend on customers interfacing effectively with technology". Reads like an interesting organization. Imägo Metrics can be contacted by phone at 301-613-4403, or via email at

Click here to read a very informative consumer review of the Night-Ops Gladius tactical flashlight by "McGizmo" at CandlePower Forums. In addition to containing some good information, the review, titled "Gladius: an amateur review and first glance", also contains some graphs and a couple of nice hi-res digital photos. It's worth reading.

The following is Night-Ops company marketing literature on the Gladius tactical illumination tool (tactical white light)/weapons light:

"Introducing the “Gladius”:

From the beginning of time, cultures have etched their permanent place in history by the armaments they forged to conquer and protect themselves from their ever-present enemies.

These tools were carried by warriors who often endured unspeakable hardships and agony, most of this sacrifice unnoticed by the vast majority of the society they were sworn to protect.

[Inevitably], warriors and conflict have always had a tremendous influence on the evolving design of these tools, as victory and mission success depends on the effectiveness, durability, and portability of their equipment; and this equipment that must endure the rigors of battle.

In the spirit of these warriors and their contributions, Blackhawk introduces its latest set of proprietary tools, Night-Ops illumination equipment. The mission of Night-Ops will be to design, and manufacture the world’s finest illumination tools. Night-Ops illumination tools will be designed to be the most durable, dependable and technologically advanced in the world. In short Night Ops illumination tools will be manufactured to meet the demanding requirements of those warriors that go into harms way by choice.

The Night-Ops team has dedicated itself to listening to those who serve as guardians of society as a whole. We value their experience, knowledge and practical wisdom.

History tells us over and over again that a single tool can radically change the landscape of the battlefield. Perspective, strategy, and tactics, call all be significantly affected with the introduction and understanding of a crucial piece of equipment.

Night-Ops first illumination tool is the “Gladius”. It is the first in a long series of projected releases.

This “Gladius” is a high-powered, compact illumination product that is named after one of the most famous battle implements in history. Many accounts indicate that original Gladius was developed after the Romans encountered a Spanish sword of the highest iron quality that was designed to puncture the enemy. It caused such terror and anguish among the Roman legionnaires that the Roman Senate decided to adopt a similar weapon, replacing the Greek sword of hoplite. Of this Spanish sword design is has been said that no other weapon has killed more men throughout History until the invention of the firearm. That being said, there was room for notable improvement of design and the Romans exploited this. We take note of these lessons learned.

The Roman solider himself was one of the toughest and most acclaimed on the planet, carrying over 90 lbs of equipment often 20 miles a day only to face prolonged battle under the harshest conditions.

Like the Roman sword before us, the Night-Ops “Gladius” is specifically designed to be a critical, practical and powerful mainstay for our frontline troops in Law Enforcement and Military Operations involved in Close Quarter Confrontations.

The Night-Ops “Gladius” will provide our modern warriors with a readily available illumination option to tip the scale of conflict in their favor.

Gladius Description:
The Gladius is a 6-volt, lithium battery powered, high-output LED driven illumination tool designed primarily for handheld use, but robust enough for weapon mounted applications.

The Gladius is designed from the ground up to be immersed into the realities of close quarter conflict.

The light is factory pre-focused for optimal use in close quarter situations. Protecting the optic is an O-ring suspended UCL glass lens that maintains a 99% light throughput, the highest in the industry.

The body design allows for a variety of handgun flashlight technical applications. It features an excellent center of gravity and the end-user will appreciate the well-placed anti-roll/retention flares. This light will not slip in your hand during stressful situations; it just feels right.

At the heart of this fighting tool is a robust electronics package that can only be described as REVOLUTIONARY. This electronics package of the “Gladius” is the most technologically advanced EVER developed for a handheld illumination tool.

It starts with a factory programmed, intelligent power management system that allows Night-Ops to take the current technology to the edge. This intelligent power management system allows the LED to be driven at a very high level while maintaining a very high degree of reliability, usability and efficiency as heat and current are digitally regulated.

This tool has an overall automatic temperature control to ensure transport safety. If the light is inadvertently activated in a confined storage container and reaches unsafe levels of heat, the light will be auto-dimmed or completely shutdown.

The intelligent power management system will communicate with the power source giving the operator low battery indications by a presenting a unique flashing pattern every 10 seconds when the system is activated. The system has also been pre-programmed to drop the light output to a lower, but useful level as the power source is exhausted until such time it can be replaced.

Initial Specifications:
(Subject to Change as every output setting is fully factory programmable)
The “Gladius” features a unique multi-function tailcap design that sets the new standard for function and usability. Modes are easily/quickly switched one-handed with thumb & index finger.

1. Standard Momentary Activation Mode (Full Clockwise Rotation)
Push on, Release off. This is vital in a tactical environment as often it is as important to get the light extinguished, as it is to energize it on demand.

2. “RapidFire” Strobe Mode or “Wave Length Technology” (Middle Setting)
This is deployed when the operator wishes to close the gap or disorient threats. This is a powerful modality! As long as the button is depressed, the light will cycle in a pre-programmed rapid strobe pattern. Additionally, the user can also have the light in the Constant On status, and then discretely set the rotating cap on Strobe and the next time the activation button is cycled it will begin “RapidFire” auto-strobing. While operating in in “RapidFire” mode the power sent to the LED is increased significantly for maximum impact.

3. Constant On Mode (Full Counter-Clockwise Rotation)
In this mode, the user depresses the switch and the light stays on at maximum power output. This feature is very useful for those users that are utilizing the light Press Again, the light goes OFF.

4. Dimming Mode (Also achieved from the Full Counter-Clockwise Rotation)
If the user maintains pressure while in the Constant ON Mode, the light begins an auto-dim sequence after 3 seconds. When the desired light level is achieved, the user simply lifts the finger and the light stays at that level. This light has a 100:1 dimming ratio 4 watts to 0.04 watts). (Probably going to ½ this again to .02 watts or less) This feature gives the light a wide range of versatility to meet operational requirements. If the operator needs just enough light to navigate in difficult terrain, to signal, or complete some administrative functions, the light can be adjusted accordingly. HOLD the switch again, and the light slowly begins to intensify again back to full power. Tap the switch during the ramp up or down the light is deactivated and recycles to the default, full-power settings awaiting reactivation.

5. System OFF (Achieved by Full-Clockwise Rotation, half button press, unlocking additional Rotation)
This allows the light to be stored in a go-bag, with other personal gear, or in a holster without accidental light activation. To get the light in the fight, simply and quickly rotate the tailcap to the right, press the button and go.

6. Contact Free Switching
The rotating tailcap uses a revolutionary non-mechanical, totally enclosed switching design, so there is no metal-to-metal contact that would ultimately create friction wear points and loss of function. This equates to having a much more dependable and durable switch in all types of environments over a much greater extended time of its competitors.

7. Waterproof
The design of the tailcap allows the end user to take the light to depth and water pressure will not activate the switch. The switch design allows pressure equalization and is not subject to depth restrictions. Repeated use in salt water may require fresh water flushing after use to remove salt crystal build-up.

8. Digital Communication
This light features a proprietary flex circuit that allows the tailcap switch to intelligently communicate with intelligent power management system located at in the front of the flashlight. This flex circuit revolutionizes the ability of the end user to control the functions that the illumination tool performs directly from the tailcap, a feature that no other lighting tool in the world has.

9. Auto Temperature Control
The enemy of LED’s is heat. Heat is what will destroy an LED if it is not managed properly. Within the electronics of the “Gladius” is a feature of automatic temperature control. Although the “Gladius” is unique designed to ventilate heat very effectively there are some occasions where the end user may store the light in an equipment bag or pouch and the light may accidentally become activated. This type of environment does not allow the “Gladius” to ventilate or cool and the temperature of the light will increase and reach a semi-critical temperature. The automatic temperature control feature then cuts the LED power by 50% (30% light reduction) allowing the temperature of the “Gladius” to gradually reduce. If for some reason the temperature is not reduced and it continues to increase a critical temperature threshold the power sent to the LED is automatically terminated to protect the LED of the “Gladius” from being damaged.

10. Low Battery Indication
Run-time of the battery will vary depending on the type of usage and functions that the user requires of the “Gladius”. When the battery life reaches a pre-determined point it will begin a process of three quick (1/10 second) pulses every 10 seconds until the batteries are replaced. This feature continually reminds the end user that the batteries are running low and need to be replaced. This low battery indication is programmed for the momentary and constant on modes.

Estimated 1 hour @ full power – 200 hours @ lowest setting.

Lumen Output – Specification forthcoming - Estimated at 85 lumens +

13. Size & Weight Specifications
· Bezel Diameter – 1.25” (Fits SF V70 holsters & filters)
· Tailcap Diameter - 1.25”
· Body Diameter - 1” (for weapons mounted applications)
· Length (Bezel to Tailcap) - 6.23”
· Weight (w/o batteries) - 6.63 oz or 188 grams

14. Two Types of Finishes
· Mil-Spec Type III Anodized – Black
· Mil-Spec Type III Anodized – Olive Drab

15. Optic/Reflector
Currently using an optic to focus. Transitioning to reflector. More intense hot spot, larger corona, greater “Throw”. Better light transmission. Currently using UCL glass with features 99% light throughput. Standard Pyrex rates at 93% throughput."

Tuesday, December 12, 2006





DEBKAfile: Olmert breaks Israel’s nuclear silence in response to US defense secretary’s nuclear stance and Iran’s Holocaust denial conference

December 11, 2006, 9:37 AM (GMT+02:00)

The Israeli prime minister made his surprising disclosure Monday, Dec. 11: “Israel doesn’t threaten any country,” he said. “Iran openly, explicitly and publicly threatens to wipe Israel off the map. Can you see this on the same level when you are aspiring to have a nuclear weapon like the US, France, Israel and Russia?” the Israeli PM asked in an interview with the German TV station N24 Sat1.

This was the first Israeli official admission of the possession of nuclear weapons.

DEBKAfile’s military sources report that Olmert decided on this step in response to US defense secretary Robert Gates’ listing of Israel as among the nuclear states surrounding Iran to explain Tehran’s search for a nuclear deterrent of its own. He was the first American official to confirm Israel had a nuclear weapon and did so without consulting Jerusalem.

Olmert chose his journey to Germany, which coincided with the opening in Tehran of a conference negating the Holocaust, for his shock disclosure. This conference is taken in Israel as a vehicle for attacking Zionist legitimacy and so justifying Iran’s ambition to destroy the Jewish state. Olmert used the opportunity to remind Iran’s rulers that Israel possesses a large stock of nuclear weapons capable of not only smashing Iran’s nuclear facilities but also disabling its infrastructure.

Olmert went on to note that the US, Russia, France and Great Britain possess nuclear weapons. But,” he said. “there is no equating them with a country like Iran. You are talking about civilized countries that do not threaten… other countries with the use of nuclear weapons to destroy them.”

According to our sources, the prime minister did not confer with any minister, military adviser or secret service head before delivering his dramatic revelation.

On December 10, DEBKAfile’s military sources offered the view that Israel cannot afford to leave answered Robert Gates’ assertion last Tuesday that no one can guarantee Iran will not use a nuclear bomb to attack Israel. Our analysts urged the Olmert government to counter Iran’s constant threats by embracing a bold, proactive nuclear posture in place of the long-held passive ambiguity.

Olmert’s disclosure indeed raised the profile of the Israel-Iran duel.

DEBKAfile’s Tehran sources report that high Iranian officials conferred urgently Monday night, Dec. 11, with supreme ruler Ayatollah Ali Khamenei in search of a quick rejoinder to Olmert’s surprise move. They must take into account the effect of their response on their relations with the United States; a naked military threat against Israel could nip in the bud the chance of a US-Iran engagement on Iraq such as the Baker-Hamilton panel has recommended.

The prime minister’s few aides in the know took this into consideration. He has also been at pains to soft-pedal intelligence of Syrian plans for a summer 2007 war so as not to upset Egyptian and Saudi efforts to detach Damascus from its close collaboration with Tehran.



Lobbying for Israel
Photo: Yaron Brener Emergency stockpiles Photo: Yaron Brener
click here to enlarge text click here to enlarge text

US to double emergency equipment stored in Israel

Emergency stockpiles in Israel meant for storing US army equipment in Middle East opened in Israel's favor during last Lebanon war
Yitzhak Benhorin

WASHINGTON - The American Congress gave Israel financial and security encouragement when the Senate and the House of Representatives gave their approval to double the emergency equipment the United States stores in Israeli stockpiles.
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Democrats may have conquered both houses of Congress, and so have Jewish politicians. Number of Jewish senators rises from 11 t o13 and number of Jewish representatives jumps to 30 thanks to six new faces creating all-time high of Jewish politicians in Congress. Another precedent: First Muslim elected to House
Full Story

Within the next two years the Americans will fill the military emergency stockpiles in Israel with double the equipment they now hold.

In addition, the US will allow Israel to use the remainder of the US's monetary guarantees given to them that have not been used yet, and add up to USD 4.5 billion, by 2011.

The emergency stockpiles are meant to store American military equipment in the Middle East in case of an emergency. However, in case of an emergency, Israel is allowed to use the stockpiles.

The value of the equipment currently stored in Israel amounts to USD 100 million and the American government approved doubling its value to USD 200 million in the coming year.

In 2008 the military stock will be doubled and refilled once again in the value of USD 200 million.

Pro-Israel decisions

The Congress decided to give special aid to Israel in order to minimize war damages, without having to give Israel additional direct financial aid.

The bill was approved by the Senate and House and it renewed authority to transfer equipment to be stored in Israel.

A great portion of the American equipment stored in Israel last year was used for combat in the summer war in Lebanon.

The US approved guarantees in the sum of USD 9 billion to Israeli to be used over a period of three years, and this period was then prolonged an additional year.

Israel has only used half of this amount and has requested the United States again extend the time limit on using these guarantees. Following the second Lebanon war the US agreed to extend this period until the year 2011.

These pro-Israel decisions were made due to the lobbying efforts of Senate heads Democrat Harry Reid and Republican Bill Frist, and through Head of the US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations John Biden and Richard Lugar.

The bill was lead by the House of Representatives' heads of the Democratic Committee on Foreign Relations Tom Lantos and the Republican Committee on Foreign Relations Ileana Ross-Lehtinen and the House's republican head Jo Bonner.








Monday, December 11, 2006

Modern Day Gog and Magog

Similarities between Ezekiel's prophecies, today's Mideast reality uncanny

December 10, 2006
Ines Ehrlich

Current world events are beginning to increasingly resemble the 2,500 year old bible prophecy made by Ezekiel in chapters 38-39. Ezekiel foresaw the rise of Russia (or Turkey, depending on the interpretation) in a coalition with Iran and other Middle Eastern countries (Sudan, Ethiopia and Libya).

The coalition is foretold to attack Israel from the north in a bid to destroy it during the earth's "last days," commonly known as the "war of Gog and Magog."

Throughout history it was thought that the prophecy had been put on hold, until perhaps today when it seems frighteningly more feasible.

In Joel C. Rosenberg's book "The Ezekiel Option," the author points to Ezekiel's prophecies in chapters 36-37, which have largely come true.

Rosenberg then asks the obvious question: If prophecies such as "the rebirth of the State of Israel, the return of the Jews to the Holy Land after centuries in exile, the re-blossoming of desolate desert land to produce abundant food, fruit and foliage, and the creation of an exceedingly great army" materialized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, then why shouldn't the next prophecies come true in our lifetime?

Let's try and place the biblical names and locations into today's reality, and see the parallel unfolding of events:

Gog is commonly believed to represent a person's name rather than a place, a tyrannical leader who may hatch an evil plan – in today's reality this "honor" could be most suited to the President of Iran, Ahmadinejad, or perhaps Hassan Nasrallah in Lebanon .

Magog, according to some scholars, refers to Russia and the republics of the former Soviet Union, or perhaps Turkey. Others will argue that the exact location has not been fully ascertained and that the word Magog may simply be a generalization for an enemy of Israel, leaving the location open.


According to the prophecy in question, "many peoples with you" who will attack along "the mountains of Israel" implies that other countries will be involved in the Russian (or Turkish), Iranian, Sudanese, Ethiopian and Libyan coalition, and who border on the mountains of Israel. This includes Lebanon, Syria and possibly Jordan as well.

Is it so farfetched to imagine the axis between Hizbullah, Iran and Syria, especially after the second war in Lebanon when these three forces overtly united and continue to support each other's goal to destroy Israel?

In his book, Rosenberg notes a conspicuous absence of Egypt and Iraq in the original prophecy, which also makes a lot of sense at this point in time. Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1979 and Iraq is embroiled in its own war of survival and both are unlikely to join a coalition against Israel.

According to the prophecy Magog "will build a military coalition and prepare a strike against Israel." Gog "will use overwhelming force against Israel" - could this be referring to nuclear force? And his coalition will "come like a storm…like a cloud covering the land."

But let's not become hysterical. According to the prophecy, there is no need for Israel to become alarmed, "as the Lord God will bring judgment upon the enemies of Israel beginning with Gog (the tyrant)."

Ezekial prophesies a great earthquake and the turning of Gog's forces against each other. The next step, which prophesies God subjecting the enemy to "pestilence, blood, torrential rains, hailstones and fire from heaven," is unclear and sounds like someone pressed the nuclear button, and if so, then who, and who in the region would survive it?

But as in all happy endings, Israel, it is prophesied, will regain its economic prosperity.

So the question remains: Should we wait for future developments and hope for the best, or look more closely at Ezekiel's prophecy and consider preemptive action to stop what may be seen as an imminent threat rising from the "anti-Israel coalition?"

With this said, Ezekiel's prophecy says nothing about an Israeli pre-emptive strike to avert a possible attack – and indeed, it appears such strike is unlikely considering the current state of our dubious, weak leadership.