Saturday, July 19, 2008
ARMOR PIERCING AMMUNITION & MOREUPDATED MONDAY - JULY 21, 2008
VIEW VERY BOTTOM WITH CAUTION - VERY GRAPHIC
"JOHNNY'S CONFUSED AGAIN"
Watch it here and read the transcript under the video:
Document forensics expert: Obama
a "horrible forgery"
|By Israel Insider staff July 20, 2008|
|The purported Certification of Live Birth published by the|
Daily Kos left wing blog and claimed as genuine by the Obama
campaign features a security border that differs dramatically
from security borders on COLB documents before and after
the one supposedly printed out for Obama in 2007.
Bush recognizes opportunity
US hoping Iran will respond to combination of diplomacy, military threats Gerald Steinberg
Published: 07.21.08, 10:17 / Israel Opinion
For years, the American Administration rejected out
of hand any possibility of negotiations with Iran, the
leading member of the “axis of evil.” Yet now, with
only a few months left in office, President George W. Bush
is suddenly changing course.
The Five Books of Moses - contain the following blessings in Genesis 49:28
- Gen 49:1 And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days.
- Gen 49:2 Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; and hearken unto Israel your father.
- Gen 49:20 Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties.
- Gen 49:22 Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall:
- Gen 49:25 Even by the G-d of thy father, who shall help thee; and by the Almighty, who shall bless thee with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts, and of the womb:
- Gen 49:26 The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren.
- Gen 49:28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: and this is it that their father spoke unto them, and blessed them; every one according to his blessing he blessed them.
Gun expert claims feds punishing him
Trial court gave man jail for malfunctioning rifle
Posted: July 14, 2008
9:44 pm Eastern
By Bob Unruh
© 2008 WorldNetDaily
A gun expert who testified against the government when David Olofson was on trial for loaning to an acquaintance a gun that misfired now says the government is punishing him for that testimony.
The allegation comes from Len Savage, who runs Historic Arms LLC and works with antique and historic weapons as well as weapons design and parts for gun makers.
His testimony in the Olofson case, in Berlin, Wis., harshly criticized the government's weapons testing procedures. In that case, the defendant was convicted and sentenced to 30 months in jail for loaning a rifle that misfired, letting off three bullets at one time.
Senior Israeli official: If nuclear talks fail, Bush will order Iran attack between November and January
DEBKAfile Special Report
July 20, 2008, 6:18 AM (GMT+02:00)
This assessment was reported by Israeli national radio Saturday overnight quoting a high-placed “security-political” official.
The source predicted that President George W. Bush would order Iran attacked between the November 4 presidential election and his exit from the White House in January. The quote was aired shortly after the six-power talks with Iran in Geneva – with US official participation for the first time – failed, and just before Israel chief of staff Lt. Gen. Gabi Ashkenazi set out for Washington. He is to spend a week there as guest of Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
DEBKAfile’s political sources describe the disclosure as a step aimed at slowing down the collapse of Israel’s stated policy of relying on international diplomatic pressure to thwart Iran’s acquisition of nuclear arms. It is expected to raise a furious outcry from the powers spearheading the diplomatic effort and prompt extreme reactions from Tehran.
Our sources report that the unidentified Israeli “security-political” source sought to achieve three objectives:
1. Underlining the signal that the US military option had not been taken off the table after the state department spokesman said Iran must choose between cooperation with the international community and confrontation.
The official was also giving Israel’s answer to the latest evaluations making the rounds in Washington that the Israeli Air Force does not have enough warplanes to strike Iran’s nuclear sites without American military support.
2. A signal that the presence at the Geneva talks Saturday, July 19, of Under Secretary of State William Burns, far from being a concession, was an implicit ultimatum. Tehran was being told that no more than three months remained for it to suspend uranium enrichment before Bush made good on his pledge to resolve the issue before he left the White House. No member of the Bush administration is saying this directly, whether Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, Defense Secretary Robert Gates or the president himself. Israel will not doubt be rebuked for its disclosure.
3. As a high-risk step to derail the accommodations Washington and Tehran are on the way to reaching in their secret talks on a wide range of issues, with the exception of the nuclear controversy, as revealed by DEBKA-Net-Weekly and DEBKAfile. Israel fears being abandoned and left out in the cold on all its fronts against Iran by these accommodations.
Tehran may well seize on the Israeli disclosure as a pretext to ditch the nuclear negotiations on all levels, unless all six powers offer guarantees against their pursuit of military initiatives.
Nailing a bunker buried deep under rock or concrete could one day mean the difference between nuclear war and a diplomatic row. (Think Iran's underground atomic gear caches.) In the New Scientist technology blog, I describe a technique developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory known as a "cluster charge" which makes blasting rock with shaped charges far more efficient.
A normal shaped charge will punch a long, narrow hole; a cluster charge will shift a much larger volume of material using an array of several charge detonated simultaneously. This technique will blast out an impressive forty to sixty times as much rock or concrete for the same weight of explosive.
The obvious application for this technology are penetrating bombs which use a shaped charge to punch a "precursor" hole which the main warhead follows through. In March, DANGER ROOM looked at Raytheon's new cruise missile which is shown blasting through nineteen feet of concrete. This type of warhead is known as BROACH, for "Bomb Royal Ordnance Augmented CHarge."
However, a cluster charge does not go deeper; it just allows you to clear more concrete. The best approach would be a series of cluster charges in tandem one after another. Or perhaps, if you want to keep digging for an extended period, use a device with several rapid-fire cannon mounted in the front to tunnel through rock.
Regular readers will recognize this as an exact description of the Deep Digger burrowing bomb we looked at some time ago here and here. The last time I examined it, there were plans for an array of Deep Diggers to produce an artificial earthquake capable of collapsing underground structures. Deep Digger was then undergoing a "security review." Appropriately enough, it seems to have gone underground.
However, it's interesting to note that Lawrence Livermore scientists are researching their own Deep Digger-esque penetrator. They are examining the effects of simultaneous volleys of projectiles. And their results look (right) strikingly similar to the Deep Digger tests (above).
It looks as though Deep Digger may be far more effective than previously estimated. It could certainly beat any kinetic penetrator – even the gigantic Massive Ordnance Penetrator will only go through about twenty-five feet of hard concrete. Deep Digger will go deeper than that – much deeper. You might be safe several hundred feet down, but a weapon that can collapse all the access tunnels means that anyone who tries will probably be digging their own tomb.
As the old saying has it, "you can run, but you can't hide."
Another stab death as police call for more search powers
As a man dies close to where Ben Kinsella was killed, beat officers warn that they are struggling to win the war against knife crime in the UK.
Subject: Armor Piercing Ammunition
Below is a revised article on federal regulation of armor
piercing (ap) ammunition. The Crime Bill re-wrote the definition.
Does anyone know what brands of ammo were meant to be banned by the
new sub-paragraph (ii)? I presume it is meant to cover the handgun
equivalents of Barnes Solids; solid copper bullets. But I am not
aware of any such ammo. Solids for handguns made out of most other
metals would have been banned by the superseded langauge.
The definition of ap ammo is at 18 USC 921(a)(17):
"(B) The term `armor piercing ammunition' means-
(i) a projectile or projectile core which may be used in a handgun and
which is constructed entirely (excluding the presence of traces of other
substances) from one or a combination of tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass,
bronze, beryllium copper, or depleted uranium; or
(ii) a full jacketed projectile larger than .22 caliber designed and
intended for use in a handgun and whose jacket has a weight of more than 25
percent of the total weight of the projectile.
(C) The term `armor piercing ammunition' does not include shotgun shot
required by Federal or State environmental or game regulations for hunting
purposes, a frangible projectile designed for target shooting, a projectile
which the Secretary finds is primarily intended to be used for sporting
purposes, or any other projectile or projectile core which the Secretary
finds is intended to be used for industrial purposes, including a charge
used in an oil and gas well perforating device."
[Secretary means Secretary of the Treasury, in reality determinations
are delegated to the Technology Branch of ATF]
Note the following things from the definition:
1) The definition was changed as part of the 1994 Crime Bill,
primarily by the addition of bullets intended to be used in a
handgun whose jacket is more than 25% of their weight. The previous
language is at the end of this article, for comparison purposes.
2) AP ammo is the bullets ONLY, not the loaded ammo, although ATF has
identified some AP ammo by the loaded ammo, not projectiles, for the
information of FFL dealers, who are not supposed to transfer AP ammo.
#From this it follows that loading the bullets identified above does not
constitute "making" AP ammo; making the bullets themselves does.
3) USE - The bullet must be able to be used in a handgun. Rather than
construing this to mean regular handgun calibers, ATF construes this to
mean any caliber for which a handgun has been made, including handguns
in rifle calibers, like .308 Winchester, and 7.62x39, for purposes of
bullets covered by (B)(i). Thus bullets suitable for these calibers,
as well as other rifle calibers for which handguns have been made (at
least commercially made) which are constructed as described below would
be AP ammo.
However bullets that fall into the AP definition under (B)(ii), because
their jackets comprise more than 25% of their weight (solid copper bullets?)
must be intended for use in a handgun, not just be able to be used in a
4) CONSTRUCTION - The bullet must either have a core made ENTIRELY out
of one or more of the listed metals, or be full metal jacket type
bullets with a jacket comprising more that 25% of its
weight. Thus SS109/M855 .223 bullets are not covered,
because their core is only partly steel, and partly lead. Lead
is not a listed metal, and bullets with cores made partly out of lead
are OK. ATF has expressly ruled that SS109/M855 bullets are not
5) Hardness of the bullet is irrelevant.
6) Ability to actually penetrate any kind of soft body armor is irrelevant.
If you are NOT a (FFL) licensee under the Gun Control Act (an individual):
ok to OWN AP ammo
ok to SELL AP ammo
ok to BUY AP ammo
ok to SHOOT AP ammo
NOT ok to MAKE AP ammo (18 USC 922(a)(7))
NOT ok to IMPORT AP ammo (18 USC 922(a)(7))
The only persons who can make AP ammo are holders of a type 10
FFL, also needed to make destructive devices, and ammunition for
destructive devices. The only persons who can import AP ammo
are holders of a type 11 FFL, who can also import DD's and ammo
for DD's. The FFL's cost $1000 a year.
If you are a licensed manufacturer or importer:
NOT ok to SELL or DELIVER AP ammo (18 USC 922(a)(8)
(with exceptions for making/importing for law enforcement, export, or R&D).
No additional restrictions, except as listed below. This applies
not only to holders of type 10 and 11 FFL's, but also type 7 and 8
FFL's (makers and importers of guns other than DD's), as well as
holders of a type 06 FFL (maker of ammo other than for DD's).
If you are a licensed dealer, manufacturer, importer or collector:
NOT ok to SELL or DELIVER AP ammo without keeping a record of the sale, similar
to the bound book record for firearm sales. (18 USC 922(b)(5)).
No additional restriction, except on dealers as noted below.
The records required to kept on sale or delivery of AP ammo need only
be kept for two years, not twenty years, like firearm records. See
27 CFR 178.121, and 27 CFR 178.125.
18 USC 923(e) allows the revocation of a dealer's FFL
for willfully transferring AP ammo, with exceptions for sales to law
enforcement and so on. This is dealers only; holders of a collector
FFL (type 03) may willfully transfer AP ammo if they wish, but must comply
with the record keeping noted above.
Some states also regulate or prohibit armor piercing ammo, and these
laws may bear no relation to how the federal law works. For state
laws, check locally. The following states regulate AP ammo,
to my knowledge, but the definition and sort of
regulation may (and likely does) deviate widely from the federal
approach. NV, OK, RI, VA, AL, NY, NJ, IL, IN, KS, LA, MN, FL, PA.
The former statute: 18 USC 921(a)(17)(B) - "The term 'armor
piercing ammunition' means a projectile or projectile core which
may be used in a handgun and which is constructed entirely (excluding
the presence of traces of other substances) from one or a combination
of tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper, or
depleted uranium. Such term does not include shotgun shot required
by Federal or State environmental or game regulations for hunting purposes,
a frangible projectile designed for target shooting, a projectile
which the Secretary finds is primarily intended to be used for sporting
purposes, or any other projectile or projectile core which the
Secretary finds is intended to be used for industrial purposes,
including a charge used in an oil and gas well perforating device."
Armor-piercing shot and shell
An armour piercing shell is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armour. From the 1860s to 1950s a major application of armour piercing projectiles was to defeat the thick armour carried on many warships. From the 1920s onwards, armour piercing weapons were required for anti-tank missions.
An armour-piercing shell has to withstand the shock of punching through armour plating. Shells designed for this purpose has a greatly strengthened case with a specially hardened and shaped nose, and a much smaller bursting charge. Some smaller calibre AP shells have an inert filling, or incendiary charge in place of the HE bursting charge. The AP shell is now little used in naval warfare, as modern warships have little or no armor protection, but it remains the prefered round in tank warfare, as it has a greater "first hit kill" probability than a high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) round, especially against a target with composite armor, and because of higher muzzle velocity is also more accurate than a HEAT round.
Armor piercing cartridges are also available as small arms ammunition, primarily for use as an anti-materiel round.
The late 1850s saw the development of the ironclad warship, which carried wrought iron armour of considerable thickness was placed on the sides. This armour was practially immune to either the round cast-iron shot then in use, or to the recently-deveoped explosive shell. The first solution to this problem was effected by Sir W. Palliser, who invented a method of hardening the head of the pointed cast-iron shot. By casting the projectile point downwards and forming the head in an iron mould, the hot metal was suddenly chilled and became intensely hard, while the remainder of the mould being formed of sand allowed the metal to cool slowly and the body of the shot to be made tough.
These chilled iron shot proved very effective against wrought-iron armour, but were not serviceable against compound and steel armour, which was first introduced in the 1880s. A new departure had, therefore, to be made, and forged steel shot with points hardened by water took the place of the Palliser shot. At first these forged steel shot were made of ordinary carbon steel, but as armour improved in quality, the projectiles followed suit.
During the 1890s and subsequently, cemented steel armour became commonplace, initially only on the thicker armour of warships. To combat this, the projectile was formed of steel - forged or cast - containing both nickel and chromium. Another change was the introduction of a soft metal cap over the point of the shell.
First World War Era
Shot and shell used prior to, and during World War I were generally cast from special chromium steel, that was melted in pots. They were afterwards forged into shape and then thoroughly annealed, the core bored at the rear and the exterior turned up in a lathe. The projectiles were finished in a similar manner to others described above. The final, or tempering treatment, which gave the required hardness/toughness profile (differential hardening) to the projectile body, was a closely guarded secret.
The rear cavity of these projectiles was capable of receiving a small bursting charge of about 2% of the weight of the complete projectile, when this is used the projectile is called an armour-piercing shell, not armour-piercing shot. The HE filling of the shell, whether fuzed or unfuzed, had a tendency to explode on striking armour in excess of its ability to perforate.
Second World War
During WWII, projectiles used highly alloyed steels containing nickel-chromium-molybdenum, although in Germany this had to be changed to a silicon-manganese-chromium based alloy when those grades became scarce. The latter alloy, although able to be hardened to the same level, was more brittle and had a tendency to shatter on striking highly sloped armour. The shattered shot lowered penetration, or resulted in total penetration failure, for APHE projectiles this could result in premature detonation of the HE filling. Highly advanced and precise methods of differentially hardening the projectile were developed during this period, especially by the German armament industry. The resulting projectiles gradual change from high hardness (low toughness) at the head, to a tough (less hard) rear and were much less likely to fail on impact.
Armour-piercing shells (APHE) for tank guns, although used by most forces of this period, were not used by the British. The only British APHE projectile was the Shell AP, Mk1 for the 2 pdr anti-tank gun and this was dropped as it was found the fuze tended to separate from the body during penetration. Even when the fuze didn’t separate and the system functioned correctly, damage to the interior was little different from the solid shot, and so did not warrant the additional time and cost of producing a shell version. APHE projectiles of this period used a bursting charge of about 1-3% of the weight of the complete projectile, the filling detonated by a rear mounted delay fuze. The explosive used in APHE projectiles needs to be highly insensitive to shock to prevent premature detonation. The US forces normally used the explosive Explosive D, otherwise known as ammonium picrate, for this purpose. Other combatant forces of the period used various explosives, suitability desensitised (usually by the use of waxes mixed with the explosive).
Due to the increase in armour thickness during the conflict, the projectiles’ impact velocity had to be increased to ensure perforation. At these higher velocities the hardened tip of the shot or shell has to be protected by the initial impact shock, or risk shattering. To raise the impact velocity and stop the shattering they were initially fitted with soft steel penetrating caps. The best performance penetrating caps were not very aerodynamic, so an additional ballistic cap was later fitted to reduce drag. The resulting projectile types were given the names "Armour Piercing Capped [APC]" and "Armour Piercing Capped Ballistic Capped [APCBC]".
Early WWII era uncapped AP projectiles fired from high-velocity guns were able to penetrate about twice their calibre at close range (100 m). At longer ranges (500-1,000 m) this dropped 1.5-1.1 calibres due to the poor ballistic shaped and higher drag of the smaller diameter early projectiles. Later in the conflict APCBC fired at close range (100 m) from large calibre, high-velocity guns (75-128 mm) were able to penetrate a much greater thickness of armour in relation to their calibre (2.5 times) and also a greater thickness (2-1.75 times) at longer ranges (1,500-2,000 m).
Although rarely encountered in large calibre tank guns now, armour-piercing shot and shell are used in the various medium calibre weapons (20-40 mm), most notably the automatic cannon used by the land, air and sea forces.
Armour-piercing shot for cannon tend to combine some form of incendiary capability with that of armour penetration. The incendiary compound is normally contained between the cap and penetrating nose, within a hollow at the rear, or a combination of both. If the projectile also uses a tracer, the rear cavity is often used to house the tracer compound. For larger calibre projectiles, the tracer may instead be contained within an extension of the rear sealing plug. Common abbreviations for solid (non-composite/hardcore) cannon fired shot are; AP, AP-T, API and API-T; where T stands for "tracer" and I for "incendiary"
Armour-piercing shells in the classic form are not common in modern cannon, though they may be found in the larger (40-57 mm) weapons, especially those of Russian, or Soviet era descent. Modern cannon instead fire semi-armour-piercing shells (SAPHE), these have less anti-armour capability, but far greater anti-material/personnel effects. The modern SAPHE projectiles still have a ballistic cap, hardened body and base fuze, but tend to have a far thinner body material and higher explosive content (4-15%). Common abbreviations for modern cannon AP and SAP shells are: HEI(BF), SAPHE, SAPHEI and SAPHEI-T.
It is interesting to note that a modern active protection system (APS) is unlikely to be able to defeat full calibre AP shot/shell fired from a large calibre tank gun. The APS can defeat the two most common anti-armour projectiles in use today: HEAT and APFSDS. The defeat of HEAT projectiles being accomplished through damage/detonation of the HE filling, damage to the shaped charge liner and/or fuzing system and for APFSDS projectiles by inducing yaw/pitch and/or fracturing of the rod. Due to the AP shot/shell's high mass, rigidity, short overall length and thick body, they are hardly affected by the defeat methods employed by APS systems (fragmentation warheads, or projected plates). Whether due to these potential failings, some form of large full calibre AP projectile will be introduced, or reinstated into service will be something to monitor.
Armour-piercing ammunition is used to penetrate hardened armoured targets such as body armor, vehicle armour, concrete, tanks and other defenses, depending on the caliber of the firearms. Armour-piercing ammunition consists of a hardened steel, tungsten-carbide, or depleted uranium penetrator enclosed within a softer material, such as copper or aluminum. Armour-piercing ammunition can range from rifle and pistol caliber rounds all the way up to tank rounds.
Rifle and pistol rounds are usually built around a penetrator of steel or tungsten. Aircraft and tank rounds sometimes use a core of depleted uranium. This penetrator is a pointed mass of high-density material that is designed to retain its shape and carry the maximum possible amount of energy as deep as possible into the target. Depleted-uranium penetrators have the advantage of being pyrophoric and self-sharpening on impact, resulting in intense heat and energy focused on a minimal area of the target's armour. Some rounds also use explosive or incendiary tips to aid in the penetration of thicker armour.
Rifle armour-piercing ammunition generally carries its hardened penetrator within a copper or cupro-nickel jacket, similar to the jacket that would surround lead in a conventional projectile. Upon impact on a hard target, the copper case is destroyed, but the penetrator continues its motion and penetrates the substance. Similar armour-piercing ammunition for pistols has also been developed. It is of similar design to the rifle ammo above.
The entire projectile is not normally made of the same material as the penetrator because the physical characteristics that make a good penetrator (tough, hard metal) make the material equally harmful to the barrel of the gun firing the round.
Contrary to common belief, Teflon or other coatings on the bullet do not in themselves help it penetrate deeper. Teflon-coated bullets were meant to help reduce the wear on the barrel as a result of firing hardened projectiles. Teflon coating was a trend that has largely faded, in part because of laws resulting from this misconception.
Some specific AP rounds
|FN P80||.308||150 grain|
Udai and Qusay Post Mortems - BELOW
LEFT CLICK TO ENLARGE
# posted by Teddy Jacobson : 8:44 AM