Saturday, February 17, 2007





I have decided to give you some updated information now as the clock is ticking and most Americans are in denial and or living in a fantasy world that just does not exist. I do not type well with my one finger but I will do my best to tell it like it is.

Unless you start to prepare now for hard times ahead you stand very little chance for survival. We are very well hated around the world and you can check me out by researching all this on the google search engine.

G-D has intentionally broken the pride of not only our power but also that of Israel and Britain. Go to your bible and read LEVITICUS Chapter 26, verse 19, that says it all.


I personally feel we are running out of time. I therefore have decided to tell you what you should do in order to protect you and your family. I have no agenda and I am not in bed with any company.

Ammunition in certain calibers is getting very hard to find, in my opinion people are panic buying and there is no way that the American factories can ever keep up with this current demand. This is becoming a very serious situation in my opinion.

Consolidate your calibers to maybe 3 different ones such as a 9mm or 45acp and a 223 remington. I would also add 22 long rifle caliber to that list. I will never buy any more odd calibers and I personally will not buy any 40 cal. handguns.

If you need a shotgun a good choice for the money is a Mossberg 500 or a Remington 870. Either one will serve your purpose. Remington makes a nickle plated buckshot cartridge that is superior, but hard to find.

I do not ever buy foreign ammo with steel cases, if I had to buy foreign ammo it would be Israeli IMI. Dreams and illusions are over, we are now down to straight talk without the BS from the forums and or the publications, you get the solid truth from me.

You must have food in your house for storage and do not wait. You need medical supplies now for an emergencie and I suggest you all read a book called "PATRIOTS" by Jim Rawles of
You can purchase this excellent book from Mr. Rawles direct.

Think MECHANICAL, buy mechanical can openers and buy some walkie talkies made by midland radio from walmart, they have an 18 mile range and are 4 or 5 watts. Do not buy 2 watt radios and buy rechargeable batteries with a solar panel.

You can go to
buy some anti radiation tablets that are available now. They cost about $24.00 for 200 tablets and you can give them to pets also in case of a problem.

If you have reloading tools you will have a big advantage but the key ingredient are primers, without primers you will have nothing. Be sure you have a mechanical back up scale to weigh the powder and all you reloaders should have at least 3 reloading manuals.

I have always felt the need to purchase critical items in pairs. I never felt comfortable buying just one important survival product. You will need a small portable mechanical pump to syphon gasoline. Always think mechanical, let the rest of the people think you are NUTS, in the end we will see who's nuts.

You must have knives and my favorite two brands are COLD STEEL and BENCHMADE. I no longer will buy a liner lock folder unless its made by cold steel or even CRKT. Liner locks have been known to close on your fingers. An AXIS type lock is better for a folder and the best tactical knife still remains the Cold Steel, Recon 1. Another excellent folder is the Benchmade Griptillian.

I am giving you good solid advice, take me seriously. You will need a wind up radio and you must protect that and all electronics with a FARADAY CAGE. Having an old micro wave oven that is not being used will work. Store critical electronics in your unused micro wave oven. BE SURE TO STORE ALL ELECTRONICS WITH OUT THE BATTERIES INSTALLED.

If you do not own a gun and or ammunition you will not survive, its that simple. I go thru a lot of trouble by telling you these things because the clock is ticking and most of the world will be happy to see our demise.

TELL NO ONE WHAT YOU HAVE AND STORE YOUR SURVIVAL ITEMS IN VARIOUS AREAS, NEVER ALL TOGETHER. If you want me to write more about this subject please let me know.

I only can now recommend certain current production handguns such as the Ruger SP101 and Ruger GP100 revolvers.

As for semi autos never buy any new models, you must buy handguns that have been proven reliable and parts and springs and magazines and holsters are easy to find. My choice still remains "GLOCK"... SEAL YOUR PRIMERS... YOUR LIFE DEPENDS ON IT...


Hope this has helped you.


Recently Released -- Patriots Expanded Edition!

Patriots: Surviving the Coming Collapse. The popular novel of the near future by James Wesley, Rawles. Rawles is the editor of

This fast-paced novel has been described as "a survival manual dressed as fiction." The older edition had a 4.5 star rating on The new edition features two bonus chapters that were not included in the previous paperback editions. I sell autographed copies through my mail order catalog, as well as through Amazon Shops--and they do accept credit cards. You can also order un-autographed copies directly from the publisher, XLibris.

The ISBNs for the new trade paperback edition are:
ISBN 13: 978-1-425734-07-7
ISBN 10: 1-4257-3407-3 (To explain: The new ISBN system uses 13 digits, but the old 10 digit numbers can still be used during the transition period.)

I sell autographed copies for $18.99 + $3.01 postage. ($22 each, Book Rate postage paid.)

Quatity pricing is as follows:

1: $22, Book Rate postage paid in the United States
2: $20 each, Book Rate postage paid in the United States
3 to 5: $19 each, Book Rate postage paid in the United States
6 to 10: $16 each, Book Rate postage paid in the United States
11 to 25: $14 each, Book Rate postage paid in the United States
Full cases of 26 copies $325 (just $12.50 each), Book Rate postage paid in the United States
Overseas orders: Add $9 for the first copy and $3 for each additional copy, for Global Priority Mail postage (where available.)

See my mail order catalog web page for ordering details.

Are you a book dealer, or do you know of one that might want to stock my novel? Case lots (of 26 copies per case) are available directly from the publisher, with a 40% dealer discount, or a 50% to 60% wholesaler discount, (The discount is based on the quantity ordered.):
Fax: 610.915.0294
Telephone: 1.888.795.4274 x.479
Snail Mail: Xlibris Corporation; International Plaza II; Suite 340; Philadelphia, PA 19113

Just Released -- Rawles on Retreats and Relocation

Rawles on Retreats and Relocation by James Wesley, Rawles.

This Book Covers: Retreat Locales, Detailed State and Local Statistics, Weapons Laws, Climate Zones, Property Selection Criteria, Zoning and CC&Rs, Self-Sufficiency, Emerging Threats, Terrorist and WWIII Targets, Offshore Retreats, Privacy, Stocking Your Retreat, and Much More! 225 pages, fully indexed, with detailed maps and retreat locale analysis. Covers 19 western states. $28. Available as a wire-o bound print-on demand book from CafePress - Click here for details

Available as a wire-o bound print-on demand book from CafePress - Click here for details


Urban Survival Kit

This 26+ Piece Urban Survival Kit contains the following items:

  • - Backpack Black
  • - Datrex food bar 2400 calorie
  • - Water Aqua Blox
  • - Light Stick
  • - Fire extinguisher
  • - Crank Flashlight/radio/siren
  • - Flashlight with batteries
  • - First aid kit
  • - Solar sleeping bag
  • - Rain poncho
  • - Swiss army type knife
  • - 4 in 1 emergency tool
  • - Gloves
  • - Whistle
  • - 10 yard roll of black duct tape. US made
  • - Wet bath wipes/knaps
  • - Survival kit-in-a-can
  • - Chow set
  • - G.I. Style Aluminum Canteen Cup
  • - Matches
  • - Clothes Line/Rope
  • - Sewing kit
  • - Candles The candles in this kit are in bulk and do not include the metal stands as shown here.
  • - 5 in 1 Surviival Aid
  • - Gloves
  • - Tube Tent

  • ...........................................................................................................................






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    Thursday, February 15, 2007

    THIS IS YOUR CALL...why we'll fight

    February 15, 2007
    by John Galt

    I had just left my local Kroger's Grocery in Cookeville, TN wandering to my car with my shopping cart when whammo. It felt like someone had just hit me in the head with a 2 by 4, but this was different. I was stunned by the blow and the noise. In my dazed condition, laying there on the ground, suddenly what looked like an infant's head rolled by me. Horrified, I snapped to, standing up, leaning on a car covered in glass. I took my hand and touched the back of my head and pulled a small, blood covered piece of glass out and realized I had been hit. It then dawned on me that my small town, in Podunk, USA had joined the long list of terror targets where we weren't supposed to get zapped in this war.

    The stroller which a mom was pushing was impaled in pieces in the window of the car just ten feet away from me. The mother and what was left of the infant must have been buried under the pile of rubble which used to be the entrance to the store. On the wall by the entrance was a tangled mess of blood and twisted shopping carts where a teenage bag boy was just a minute ago. I ran up to the inside of the store to try to help and dozens of poor souls were laying there, elderly and young, black, white and latino, all covered in glass, blood and crying in pain.

    Later that night, after a long 4 hours in the emergency room, I heard what happened on the local, now non-stop news. A video was playing over and over again of a Hezbollah suicide bomber screaming in Spanish that he was avenging the brothers attacking the people of Allah and urging others to follow him. "Spanish?", I thought, "what the hell is going on?" Then on the news, there was the National Guard, deployed and rounding up the migrants just outside of town. Hezbollah had infiltrated from Chiapas and South America the newscaster said. And after 33 suicide bombings in major cities by Middle Eastern attackers, a new phase in the war had opened. And it explained the suicide attack in Cancun the week before. The war was now total. And it was now home. Now I understand the answer to the question:

    "Why we fight?"

    This scenario might be outlandish for today's date and time, February of 2007. But within 30, 60 or 180 days from now, maybe not so insane. The insiders in Washington, DC are leaking, hinting, prepping, and basically advertising the fact that war with Iran and radical Islam is about to go "hot" and worldwide. But AIism (American Idolism) keeps the sheep distracted from confronting the upcoming reality. Some time soon we will be in not just a conventional war in the Middle East, far beyond Iraq and Afghanistan's borders, but at home we will be in an unconventional war. Where vacations on cruise ships, trips to the Caribbean or Mexico or just going to the grocery store might just become a life endangering proposition. Oh, they may not suicide bomb a cruise ship. It could be as simple as kidnapping two Americans and beheading them on video. The peacelovers, tree huggers, liberals, conspiracy freaks, radio hosts stuck on 9-11, and Israel haters will all be silenced (hopefully) and should shut up and accept the new reality: This upcoming war can not be stopped.

    The Iranians and Islamic radicals have been mobilizing for twenty years for this World War and their troops are in position world wide. Not only is the Revolutionary Guard deployed on it's own borders, but within Iraq, the Gulf States, Afghanistan, and throughout Latin America, Canada, and the United States via their proxy army of Hezbollah agents. Yet we still live in denial. No different than the Archduke in 1914 or our military on December 6, 1941.

    We entered World War I, in this writer's opinion, not to defend our nation. It was a contrived war by Woodrow Wilson to expand our empire on the cheap, and to prevent a world wide Japanese and German empire from being created. By allying with Japan against Germany the U.S. was able to obtain bases throughout the Pacific and keep the Japanese from starting it's expansionist desires at that time. And Germany was checked, temporarily, because the collapse of the Anglo-French colonial empire was unacceptable to us. And in World War II, we finally won the final victory that was put off from World War I.

    We will have no choice in this upcoming war. Our troops are there and probably will be attacked in ways we never dreamed of. The audacity of the Iranian attack will be the obvious: they will use them rather than lose them. By engaging us, they can claim it was in defense and the Arab street will follow them, causing problems for our "allies" who want us to finally win this war. I use the term "allies" loosely, because they will not fight nor are really our friends. This war, as most world wars, is a result of nations attempting to maintain a status quo and expand their own powers at what they perceive as no cost to themselves. Saudi Arabia, the Gulf States, and Egypt, are desiring the Shiite sect be exterminated and they are doing everything they can to drag us into this conflict and fight this war for them. The Sunni Wahabism can not be established as the dominant radical sect of Islam until the Shia are terminated en masse.

    In the mean time, a mean bear sits on the sidelines to profit hugely, even as their nation nosedives into irrelevancy, they are playing all sides in this war. Russia still believes in MAD and would never dare attack us. But when a nuke goes off on American soil, it is this writer's belief that their fingerprints will be all over it. Because they want us eliminated so their new tripartite alliance with China and India can divide up the economic spoils.

    So what does this have to do with a Mexican Islamic convert blowing himself up (theoretically) at a Podunksville grocery store? Well, think people. We're already profiling, despite what our government says. But that hidden army, which could easily sneak in among the millions of illegals already in this nation, is waiting for orders. These could be some of the radical Islamic converts or just some of the die hard old communists wanting to get revenge for our activities in Columbia, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Under the guise of radical Islam, those nations can attack us unpunished and at will. By using the battle plans developed by Hezbollah and Hamas in the Middle East. Our nation is not ready for this.

    Our people will not know how to deal with this on our own soil. We are not Israel, nor prepared to behave like that nation.

    This is why we will fight this war. Because we have no choice. Get prepared. Or this nation too, shall perish from this earth.


    MUST SEE VIDEO posted Fri. 2/16/07




    Waivers to Army recruits with criminal backgrounds double from 2003 to 2006

    Raw Story | February 14, 2007

    The number of waivers granted to Army recruits with criminal bacckgrounds has doubled in three years, according to press reports on data released by the Defense Department.

    "The Army and Marine Corps are letting in more recruits with criminal records, including some with felony convictions, reflecting the increased pressure of five years of war and its mounting casualties," Lolita C. Baldor reports for the Associated Press.

    In Wednesday's New York Times, Lizette Alvarez notes that "the number of waivers the military granted to Army recruits with criminal backgrounds has nearly doubled in the past three years, jumping to more than 8,000 in 2006 from about 4,900 in 2003, Department of Defense records show."

    "In the past few years, the Army has employed a range of tactics to expand its diminishing pool of recruits," Alvarez adds. "It has offered larger cash bonuses for enlisting, allowed more high school dropouts and applicants with low scores on the Army's aptitude test to join, and loosened weight and age restrictions."

    Excerpts from Associated Press article:

    According to data compiled by the Defense Department, the number of Army and Marine recruits needing waivers for felonies and serious misdemeanors, including minor drug offenses, has grown since 2003. The Army granted more than double the number of waivers for felonies and misdemeanors in 2006 than it did in 2003. Some recruits may get more than one waiver.

    The military routinely grants waivers to admit recruits who have criminal records, medical problems or low aptitude scores that would otherwise disqualify them from service. Overall the majority are moral waivers, which include some felonies, misdemeanors, and traffic and drug offenses.

    The number of felony waivers granted by the Army grew from 411 in 2003 to 901 in 2006, according to the Pentagon, or about one in 10 of the moral waivers approved that year. Other misdemeanors, which could be petty theft, writing a bad check or some assaults, jumped from about 2,700 to more than 6,000 in 2006. The minor crimes represented more than three-quarters of the moral waivers granted by the Army in 2006, up from more than half in 2003.

    Army and Defense Department officials defended the waiver program as a way to admit young people who may have made a mistake early in life but have overcome past behavior. And they said about two-thirds of the waivers granted by the Marines are for drug use, because they — unlike the other services — require a waiver if someone has been convicted once for marijuana use.

    Military grants more waivers to recruits

    Associated Press | February 14, 2007

    The Army and Marine Corps are letting in more recruits with criminal records, including some with felony convictions, reflecting the increased pressure of five years of war and its mounting casualties.

    According to data compiled by the Defense Department, the number of Army and Marine recruits needing waivers for felonies and serious misdemeanors, including minor drug offenses, has grown since 2003. The Army granted more than double the number of waivers for felonies and misdemeanors in 2006 than it did in 2003. Some recruits may get more than one waiver.

    The military routinely grants waivers to admit recruits who have criminal records, medical problems or low aptitude scores that would otherwise disqualify them from service. Overall the majority are moral waivers, which include some felonies, misdemeanors, and traffic and drug offenses.

    The number of felony waivers granted by the Army grew from 411 in 2003 to 901 in 2006, according to the Pentagon, or about one in 10 of the moral waivers approved that year. Other misdemeanors, which could be petty theft, writing a bad check or some assaults, jumped from about 2,700 to more than 6,000 in 2006. The minor crimes represented more than three-quarters of the moral waivers granted by the Army in 2006, up from more than half in 2003.

    Army and Defense Department officials defended the waiver program as a way to admit young people who may have made a mistake early in life but have overcome past behavior. And they said about two-thirds of the waivers granted by the Marines are for drug use, because they — unlike the other services — require a waiver if someone has been convicted once for marijuana use.

    Lawmakers and other observers say they are concerned that the struggle to fill the military ranks in this time of war has forced the services to lower their moral standards.

    "The data is crystal clear. Our armed forces are under incredible strain and the only way that they can fill their recruiting quotas is by lowering their standards," said Rep. Marty Meehan (news, bio, voting record), D-Mass., who has been working to get additional data from the Pentagon. "By lowering standards, we are endangering the rest of our armed forces and sending the wrong message to potential recruits across the country."

    Army spokesman Paul Boyce said Tuesday he is concerned because the Pentagon data differs from Army numbers. But overall, he said, "anything that is considered a risk or a serious infraction of the law is given the highest level of review."

    "Our goal is to make certain that we recruit quality young men and women who can keep America defended against its enemies," Boyce said.

    The data was obtained through a federal information request and released by the California-based Michael D. Palm Center, a think tank that studies military issues.

    "The fact that the military has allowed more than 100,000 people with such troubled pasts to join its ranks over the past three years illustrates the problem we're having meeting our military needs in this time of war," said Aaron Belkin, director of the center.

    Belkin said a new study commissioned by the center also concludes that the military does not have any programs that help convicted felons adjust to military life.

    In recent years, as the Iraq and Afghanistan wars have dragged on, the military has also relaxed some standards in order to meet recruitment demands. The Army, for example, increased its age limit for recruits from 35 to 42, and is accepting more people whose scores on a standardized aptitude test are at the lower end of the acceptable range.

    In its report, the Pentagon said, "The waiver process recognizes that some young people have made mistakes, have overcome their past behavior, and have clearly demonstrated the potential for being productive, law-abiding citizens and members of the military."

    According to the Pentagon, nearly a quarter of new military recruits needed some type of waiver in 2006, up from 20 percent in 2003. Roughly 30,000 moral waivers were approved each year between 2003 and 2006.

    The military in its report divides moral waivers into six categories: felonies, serious and minor non-traffic offenses, serious and minor traffic offenses and drug offenses. Because many states have different crimes categorized as a felony or misdemeanor, the groupings are more general.

    About one in five Army recruits needed a waiver to enlist in 2006, up from 12.7 percent in 2003. In addition, the report showed that the Army granted substantially fewer waivers for drug use and serious traffic violations last year than in 2003.

    More than half of the Marine recruits needed a waiver in 2006, a bit higher than in 2003, and largely due to their more strict drug requirements. Felony waivers made up about 2 percent of the Marine waivers, while other lesser crimes made up about 25 percent, both up slightly from 2003.

    About 18 percent of Navy recruits required a waiver, up only slightly from 2003. Two-thirds of the waivers granted by the Navy were for misdemeanor-type crimes and about 5 percent were for felonies.

    Just 8 percent of Air Force recruits had waivers, down a bit from 2003. Nearly all of the waivers were for the misdemeanor-type crimes.

    Monday, February 12, 2007


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    Electromagnetic Pulse


    (Photograph courtesy of Miles Stair, )


    Miles Stair's Survival Shop

    The reality of protecting all electronic equipment against EMP from a nuclear explosion over our shores is becoming imminent. We now live in perilous times.

    The information to follow on building "Faraday cages" is timely indeed. A single atmospheric nuclear detonation releases enough electromagnetic pulse (EMP) to equal 100,000 volts per square centimeter on the ground. A single detonation 200 to 400 miles over the center of the continental United States would fry every unprotected computer chip from coast to coast, and from the middle of Canada to the middle of Mexico. And we are now into Solar Cycle 23, with solar flares common and expected to continue until the first of next year. CME's are capable of extreme damage to modern computerized equipment! Sure, we have our windup BayGen radio's and spare lap top computers, but unless electronic equipment is protected from an electromagnetic pulse, they will be fried!

    When Einstein and the others first refined and purified uranium, they took time off and studied its properties. That is when they discovered the "rays" that were harmful, as well as the phase transformations. In the course of their work, one of the scientists discovered that simply covering an object with a grounded copper mesh would stop virtually all electromagnetic radiation, whether proton or neutron. Obviously, they had to protect their monitoring equipment! Thus was born the "Faraday cage."

    The copper mesh, like 1 inch chicken wire, worked well in large uses, like covering buildings, and it is still in use today: FEMA headquarters buildings are dome-shaped earth-bermed structures, and under the earth is a copper mesh that extends out from the base and is secured by grounding rods.

    As an Electro Magnetic Pulse (EMP) travels to earth, whether from a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) or a nuclear detonation in the atmosphere, it hits and runs along electrical power lines as well, building up voltage and amperage, which is what happened during the last solar storm a dozen years ago, blowing out transformers and leaving 6 million people in eastern Canada without power for weeks.

    To prevent that problem, if you have a hard-wired generator, the wiring from the generator to the house should run in conduit that is grounded. The generator itself can have the frame grounded for added insurance, but that ground wire MUST be insulated and run to a different ground rod well away from the ground rod for building and conduit!

    With radio's and smaller appliances, a Faraday cage can be built by using two cardboard boxes: one should fit tightly inside the other, and the item to be covered should itself fit reasonably well inside the smaller box. That is about the most work involved--finding the right size boxes! The outer box is then covered with aluminum foil or Mylar, as from a cheap "space blanket." A grounding wire is then taped to the foil. I then cover the foil with black 6 mil plastic, taped securely in place, to protect the foil from ripping. At the end of the ground wire I attach a cheap small alligator clip from Radio Shack. The item to be protected is placed inside the inner box, which acts as insulation from the outer box, and any EMP hitting the foil and is bled away by the ground wire.

    Some medium sized electrical equipment can also easily fit into boxes covered with foil for EMP protection. My laptop computer, for example, fits easily into a Faraday box made from a box that held reams of paper: the entire lid is removable, allowing easy access to the laptop in its case, but is safely stored when not in use.

    For larger items which cannot be boxed, such as living room TV sets, etc, I tape a Mylar space blanket to a piece of 6 mil black plastic sheet, using double-sticky tape every foot or so to make sure the Mylar stays in place (it is slippery). I leave a 2 inch edge of black plastic showing all around the space blanket, and while taping down the edges I put on a short lead of ground wire. When it appears that EMP or CME's are on the way, the blanket can be draped over the appliance, the alligator clip attached to a small, unobtrusive ground wire behind the cabinet, and any electromagnetic radiation will be diverted to the ground wire. Very cheap, simple, and once done, items can be "draped" for protection very quickly indeed. And the plastic blankets fold up neatly for storage, ready for use when needed.

    The time to build Faraday cages or blankets is NOW, as when they are actually needed it will be far too late. Each box should be labeled on the ends and the top for the exact appliance they were built for, to eliminate any confusion when they must be protected in a hurry. Any electrical appliances not in use should be stored in the Faraday cage, where they will be kept clean, neat, in a known location, and protected against any sudden EMP surge.


    EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) info. collection
    This page will remain in a constant state of expansion, so bookmark and revisit often!
    Last updated: June 28, 2003 -
    Added "Hardening Your Computer Assets" and the link to the
    Journal of Electronic Defense.

    "...the de facto national policy of nakedness to all of our potentially EMP-armed enemies takes on ever more the character of national scale masochism. It is perverse, irrational, and assuredly not necessary or foreordained."
    - Dr. Lowell Wood, Lawrence Livermore Labs

    What is EMP?
    According to the Institute for Telecommunications Sciences, Electromagnetic Pulse is:

    "1. The electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons from photons scattered in the materials of the nuclear device or in a surrounding medium.
    The resulting electric and magnetic fields may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. May also be caused by non-nuclear means;

    2. A broadband, high-intensity, short-duration burst of electromagnetic energy. Note: In the case of a nuclear detonation, the electromagnetic pulse consists of a continuous frequency spectrum. Most of the energy is distributed throughout the lower frequencies between 3 Hz and 30 kHz."

    In plain language, it is an electromagnetic "shock wave" that is released from nuclear detonations that can seriously damage any electrical components in its path. EMP can travel either through air or through conductive pathways such as electrical or phone lines. It can affect electronic equipment regardless of whether the equipment is switched on or off.

    The goal of this site is to help you protect your communications and computing gear from EMP, as well as provide an understanding of the threats to and vulnerabilities of our electronics-based society.

    General EMP Information
    The Electromagnetic Bomb - A Weapon of Electrical Mass Destruction - a long and interesting article on E-Bombs.
    Balanced Electromagnetic Hardening Program - R&D wing of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.
    Electromagnetic Pulse-From Chaos To A Manageable Solution - A very interesting white paper by a USMC Major on the EMP threat, dated 1988.
    A short Popular Mechanics article from 2001 on E-Bombs and the potential for terrorists to use them.
    The Threat of High Altitude EMP to Force XXII - 20 page 1997 article from National Security Studies Quarterly on the threat to US Forces from EMP - Adobe .pdf document.
    Hardening Your Computer Assets - an article by Carlo Kopp on how to protect IT systems from EMP - very good! Adobe .pdf document.
    QST Magazine Articles - 1986
    In 1986, QST magazine published a 4-part article on "Electromagnetic Pulse and the Radio Amateur". The article offered some in-depth technical information on hardening radio equipment against lightning strikes or nuclear explosions. More than you ever wanted to know...
    Here are the 4 articles in Adobe Acrobat: (NOTE: files are hosted at the site)
    Article 1 - How EMP works and its effects on antennas, equipment, phone lines, etc. (1.09MB .pdf file)
    Article 2 - Tests of EMP & transient protection devices. (523k .pdf file)
    Article 3 - More tests of EMP & transient protection devices (583k .pdf file)
    Article 4 - Procedures and products to protect your gear (568k .pdf file)
    Military Manuals
    Military Handbook MIL-HDBK-1195 30 (SEPTEMBER 1988) - "Radio Frequency Shielded Enclosures" - 79 pages of technical and practical informtion on shielding devices from EMP and EMI. HTML Version or the Zipped Version which includes all the illustrations.
    Field Manual 24-18 (Tactical Single Channel Radio Communications) has some good EMP info in Appendix J.
    US Army Corps of Engineers Pamphlet EP 1110-3-2 - "Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and Tempest Protection for Facilities"; a 467 page technical manual!
    EMI/EMP Shielding Equipment Manufacturers
    Manufacturers' websites, ranging from bomb-proof to simple surge protection.
    CCI - Conduit-mount and explosion-proof EMI suppressors
    Chomerics - EMI/EMP shielding for cables that uses a sheath that you zip around the cable and connections
    Citel - Coaxial surge protectors, AC surge protectors, and more - good stuff!
    Control Concepts - mostly large industrial applications
    Fischer Custom Communications - check out the EM Pro Cord...neat stuff.
    NexTek - mostly lightning surge protection, but still good stuff.
    Polyphaser - Great products for the protection of your commo gear!
    Faraday Cage Information - Faraday cages are devices that protect objects within the cage from electric charges and EMP. Based upon principles put forth by Michael Faraday in 1836, the Faraday cage is still being tinkered with by modern inventors. There are a LOT of strange ideas out there on what Faraday cages can and cannot do. I've tried to filter out the wingnuts and provide only solid data:
    Bolt Lighning Protection - An EXCELLENT overview of the basic properties of a Faraday cage.
    Dixel Electronics - This Israeli company manufactures all sorts of fascinating products like Mu-copper foil that you can roll onto walls like wall paper to create your own EMP-safe rooms; transparent protective mesh you can add to windows and more...
    Congressional Testimony on EMP Topics
    1997 Congressional Testimony on the effect of EMP Blasts on the national infrastructure in the House Committess on National Security - a long and fascinating read; Note - sometimes this link works, sometimes not - keep trying.
    1999 Congressional Testimony on the effect of an EMP attack on the US economy.
    1999 Testimony in front of the House Armed Services Committee from Dr. Lowell Wood from Livermore National Labs on the EMP threat.
    1998 Testimony in front of the Joint Economic Committee on "Radio Frequency Weapons and Proliferation"
    The Journal of Electronic Defense - Publication of the Association of Old Crows, an association of electronic warfare parctitioners - very professional!


    List of states with nuclear weapons

    This is a list of states with nuclear weapons. There are currently eight states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five are considered to be "nuclear weapons states", an internationally recognized status conferred by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are: the United States, Russia (successor state to the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, France, and China. Since the formulation of the NPT, three non-signatory states of the NPT have conducted nuclear tests: India, Pakistan, and purportedly North Korea. Additionally, Israel is almost universally believed to possess nuclear warheads. Iran has been developing uranium enrichment technology and stands accused by the United States of doing so for weapons uses. Iran insists that its intentions are limited to domestic nuclear power generation, despite plutonium traces being detected. As of February 4, 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency referred Iran to the United Nations Security Council in response to concerns on their possible nuclear programs.


    Estimated worldwide nuclear stockpiles

    The following is a list of nations that have admitted the possession of nuclear weapons, the approximate number of warheads under their control in 2002, and the year they tested their first weapon. This list is informally known in global politics as the "Nuclear Club". With the exception of Russia and the United States (which have subjected their nuclear forces to independent verification under various treaties) these figures are estimates, in some cases quite unreliable estimates. Also, these figures represent total warheads possessed, rather than deployed. In particular, under the SORT treaty thousands of Russian and U.S. nuclear warheads are in inactive stockpiles awaiting processing. The fissile material contained in the warheads can then be recycled for use in nuclear reactors that drive nuclear power plants and some military submarines and warships.

    From a high of 65,000 active weapons in 1985, there were about 20,000 active nuclear weapons in the world in 2002. Many of the "decommissioned" weapons were simply stored or partially dismantled, not destroyed.[1]

    World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color.  ██ Five "nuclear weapons states" from the NPT ██ Other known nuclear powers ██ States formerly possessing nuclear weapons ██ States suspected of being in the process of developing nuclear weapons and/or nuclear programs ██ States which at one point had nuclear weapons and/or nuclear weapons research programs ██ States that possess nuclear weapons, but have not widely adopted them ██ States without nuclear weapons
    World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ██ Five "nuclear weapons states" from the NPT ██ Other known nuclear powers ██ States formerly possessing nuclear weapons ██ States suspected of being in the process of developing nuclear weapons and/or nuclear programs ██ States which at one point had nuclear weapons and/or nuclear weapons research programs ██ States that possess nuclear weapons, but have not widely adopted them ██ States without nuclear weapons
    Country Warheads active/total* Year of first test
    Five "nuclear weapons states" from the NPT
    Flag of United States United States 5,735/9,960[2] 1945 ("Trinity")
    Flag of Russia Russia (formerly the Soviet Union) 5,830/16,000[3] 1949 ("RDS-1")
    Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom <200[4] 1952 ("Hurricane")
    Flag of France France 350[5] 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue")
    Flag of People's Republic of China China 130[6] 1964 ("596")
    Other known nuclear powers
    Flag of India India 40-50[7] 1974 ("Smiling Buddha")
    Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 30-52[8] 1998 ("Chagai-I")
    Flag of North Korea North Korea 1-10[9] 2006[10]
    Undeclared nuclear weapons states
    Flag of Israel Israel >400[11] Possibly 1979 (see Vela Incident)

    *All numbers are estimates from the Natural Resources Defense Council, published in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, unless other references are given. If differences between active and total stockpile are known, they are given as two figures separated by a forward slash. If no specifics are known, only one figure is given. Stockpile number may not contain all intact warheads if a substantial amount of warheads are scheduled for but have not yet gone through dismantlement; not all "active" warheads are deployed at any given time. When a range of weapons is given (e.g., 0-10), it generally indicates that the estimate is being made on the amount of fissile material which has likely been produced, and the amount of fissile material needed per warhead depends on estimates of a country's proficiency at nuclear weapon design.

    Five "nuclear weapons states" from the NPT

    An early stage in the "Trinity" fireball, the first nuclear explosion.
    An early stage in the "Trinity" fireball, the first nuclear explosion.
    • Flag of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics The USSR tested its first nuclear weapon ("Joe-1") in 1949, in a crash project developed partially with espionage obtained during and after World War II (see: Soviet atomic bomb project). The direct motivation for their weapons development was the development of a balance of power during the Cold War. It tested a primitive hydrogen bomb in 1953 ("Joe-4") and a megaton-range hydrogen bomb in 1955 ("RDS-37"). The Soviet Union also tested the most powerful explosive ever detonated by humans, ("Tsar Bomba"), which had a yield of 100 megatons, but was intentionally reduced to 50. After its dissolution in 1991, its weapons entered officially into the possession of Flag of Russia Russia.
    • Flag of United Kingdom The United Kingdom tested its first nuclear weapon ("Hurricane") in 1952, drawing largely on data gained while collaborating with the United States during the Manhattan Project. Its program was motivated to have an independent deterrent against the USSR, while also remaining relevant in Cold War Europe. It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1957. It maintains the Trident fleet of nuclear weapon submarines.
    French nuclear-powered tactical nuclear bombers carrier Charles de Gaulle and the American nuclear-powered carrier USS Enterprise (left)
    French nuclear-powered tactical nuclear bombers carrier Charles de Gaulle and the American nuclear-powered carrier USS Enterprise (left)
    • Flag of France France tested its first nuclear weapon in 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue"), based mostly on its own research aided by indirect British help[citations needed]. It was motivated by the will of independence vis-à-vis the United States confirmed with France's loosening of ties to NATO, and as an independent deterrent against the USSR. It was also relevant to retain great power status, along side the United Kingdom, during the post-colonial Cold War (see: Force de frappe). France tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1968 ("Opération Canopus"). After the Cold War, France has disarmed 175 warheads with the reduction and modernization of its arsenal which has now evolved to a dual system based on submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SSBN) and medium-range air-to-surface missiles (Rafale bombers). However new nuclear weapons are in development and reformed nuclear squadrons were trained during Enduring Freedom operation in Afghanistan. In January 2006, president Jacques Chirac officially stated a terrorist act or the use of weapons of mass destruction against France would result in a nuclear counterattack [12]. The Charles de Gaulle is currently the last carrier with nuclear weapons deployed by a country.
    • Flag of People's Republic of China China tested its first nuclear weapon in 1964. China was the first Asian nation to have developed and tested a nuclear weapon. The weapon was developed as a deterrent against both the United States and the USSR. It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1967 at Lop Nur. The country is currently thought to have had a stockpile of around 130 warheads.[13]

    Other known nuclear powers

    An Indian Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile displayed at the Republic Day Parade 2004. (Photo: Antônio Milena/ABr)
    An Indian Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile displayed at the Republic Day Parade 2004. (Photo: Antônio Milena/ABr)
    • Flag of India India has never been a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. It tested a "peaceful nuclear device", as it was described by the Indian government, in 1974 ("Smiling Buddha"), the first test developed after the creation of the NPT, and created new questions about how civilian nuclear technology could be diverted secretly to weapons purposes (dual-use technology). It appears to have been primarily motivated as a deterrent against China. It tested weaponized nuclear warheads in 1998 ("Operation Shakti"), including a thermonuclear device (though whether the latter was fully successful is a matter of some contention).[14] In July 2005, it was officially recognized by the United States as a "a responsible state with advanced nuclear technology" and agreed to full nuclear cooperation between the two nations.[15] This is seen as a tacit entry into the nuclear club of the above nations. In March 2006, a civil nuclear cooperation deal was signed between President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. This deal, ratified by United States Congress and United States Senate in December 2006 would pave the path for the United States and other members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group to sell civilian nuclear technology to India. The country is currently thought to have had a stockpile of around 40-50 warheads.[16]
    • Flag of Pakistan Pakistan is not a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Pakistan covertly developed nuclear weapons over many decades, beginning in the late 1970s. Pakistan first delved into nuclear power after the establishment of its first nuclear power plant near Karachi with equipment and materials supplied mainly by western nations in the early 1970s. After the detonation of a nuclear bomb by India, the country started its own nuclear weapons development program and established secret, mostly underground, nuclear facilities near the capital Islamabad. It is believed that Pakistan already had nuclear weapons capability by the end of the 1980s. However, this was to remain speculative until 1998 when Pakistan conducted its first nuclear tests at the Chagai Hills, in reply to the Nuclear tests conducted by India a few days before.
    • Flag of North Korea North Korea was a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, but announced a withdrawal on January 10, 2003 and did so that April. In February 2005 they claimed to possess functional nuclear weapons, though their lack of a test at the time led many experts to doubt the claim. However, in October 2006, North Korea stated that due to growing intimidation by the USA, it would conduct a nuclear test to confirm its nuclear status. North Korea reported a successful nuclear test on October 9, 2006. Most U.S. intelligence officials believe that North Korea did, in fact, test a nuclear device due to radioactive isotopes detected by U.S. aircraft; however, most agree that the test was probably only partially successful, having less than a kiloton in yield.[17]

    Suspected nuclear states

    Countries believed to have at least one nuclear weapon, but which have not officially admitted to the possession of nuclear weapons.

    On October 5, 1986, the British newspaper The Sunday Times ran Mordechai Vanunu's story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed — the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal."
    On October 5, 1986, the British newspaper The Sunday Times ran Mordechai Vanunu's story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed — the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal."
    • Flag of Israel Israel - Israel is not a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and refuses to officially confirm or deny having a nuclear arsenal, or to having developed nuclear weapons, or even to having a nuclear weapons program. Although Israel claims that the Negev Nuclear Research Center near Dimona is a "research reactor," (since the late 50')no scientific reports based on work done there have ever been published. Extensive information about the program in Dimona was also disclosed by technician Mordechai Vanunu in 1986. In an apparent slip, Israel's Prime Minister Ehud Olmert admitted in an interview that Israel was among the countries that possessed nuclear weapons. According to some estimates, it possesses as many as 400-500 nuclear warheads. Imagery analysts can identify weapon bunkers, mobile missile launchers, and launch sites in satellite photographs. Israel may have tested a nuclear weapon along with South Africa in 1979, but this has never been confirmed (see Vela Incident). According to the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Federation of American Scientists, Israel possesses around 200 weapons.[18]

    States suspected of having clandestine nuclear programs

    The question of whether individual states without nuclear weapons are trying to develop them is often a controversial one. Accusations of clandestine nuclear programs are often vehemently denied, and may be politically motivated themselves, or simply erroneous. Below are countries who have been accused by a number of governments and intergovernmental agencies as currently attempting to develop nuclear weapons technology who are not suspected as yet having developed it.

    • Flag of Iran Iran - Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and says its interest in nuclear technology, including enrichment, was for civilian purposes only (a right guaranteed under the treaty), but the United States of America's CIA and a few other western countries, mainly the United Kingdom [citation needed] suspect that this is a cover for a nuclear weapons program, claiming that Iran has little need to develop nuclear power domestically and that it has consistently chosen nuclear options which were dual-use technology rather than those which could only be used for power generation.[19] Former Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi stated on the intentions of his country's nuclear ambitions: "Iran will develop nuclear power abilities and these have to be recognized by the treaties."[20] As of February 4, 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency referred Iran to the United Nations Security Council in response to Western concerns on their possible nuclear programs. On April 11, 2006, Iran's president announced that the country had successfully enriched uranium to reactor-grade levels for the first time. On April 22, 2006, Iran's envoy to the U.N. nuclear watchdog agency stated the Islamic republic had reached a "basic deal" with the Kremlin to form a joint uranium enrichment venture on Russian territory.[21]
    • Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia - In 2003, members of the government stated that due to the worsening relations with the USA, Saudi Arabia was being forced to consider the development of nuclear weapons; however, so far they have denied that they are making any attempt to produce them.[22] It has been rumoured that Pakistan has transferred several nuclear weapons to Saudi Arabia, but this is unconfirmed.[23] In March 2006, the German magazine Cicero reported that Saudi Arabia had since 2003 received assistance from Pakistan to acquire nuclear missiles and warheads. Satellite photos allegedly reveal an underground city and nuclear silos with Ghauri rockets south of the capital Riyadh.[24] Pakistan has denied aiding Saudi Arabia in any nuclear ambitions.[25]

    States formerly possessing nuclear weapons

    Nuclear weapons have been present in many nations, often as staging grounds under control of other powers. However, in only a few instances have nations given up nuclear weapons after being in control of them; in most cases this has been because of special political circumstances. The fall of the USSR, for example, left several former Soviet-bloc countries in possession of nuclear weapons.

    • Flag of South Africa South Africa – South Africa produced six nuclear weapons in the 1980s, but disassembled them in the early 1990s. In 1979 there was a putative detection of a clandestine nuclear test in the Indian Ocean, and it has long been speculated that it was potentially a test by South Africa, perhaps in collaboration with Israel, though this has never been confirmed (see Vela Incident). South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991.[26]

    Former Soviet countries

    • Flag of Belarus Belarus – Belarus had 81 single warhead missiles stationed in their territory after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. They were all transferred to Russia by 1996. Belarus signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[27]
    • Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan – Kazakhstan inherited 1,400 nuclear weapons from the Soviet Union, and transferred them all to Russia by 1995. Kazakhstan has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[28]
    • Flag of Ukraine Ukraine - Ukraine has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Ukraine inherited about 5,000 nuclear weapons when it became independent from the USSR in 1991, making its nuclear arsenal the third-largest in the world.[29] By 1996, Ukraine had voluntarily disposed of all nuclear weapons within its territory, transferring them to Russia.[30]

    States formerly possessing nuclear programs

    These are nations known to have initiated serious nuclear weapons programs, with varying degrees of success. All of them are now regarded as currently no longer actively developing, or possessing, nuclear arms. All of the listed countries (or their descendants) signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

    • Flag of Argentina Argentina – Argentina created its National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in 1950 for developing and controlling nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in the country but conducted a nuclear weapon research program under military rule of 1978, at a time when it had signed, but not ratified, the Treaty of Tlatelolco. This program was abandoned after democratization in 1983.[31] However, unofficial reports and U.S. intelligence postulate that Argentina continued some kind of nuclear weapons program during the 1980s (as an attempt to build a nuclear submarine), mainly because of rivalry with Brazil[32] but the program was cancelled. In the early 1990s, Argentina and Brazil established a bilateral inspection agency to verify both countries' pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes and on February 10, 1995, Argentina acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
    • Flag of Australia Australia – Following World War II, Australian defence policy initiated joint nuclear weapons development with the United Kingdom. Australia provided uranium, land for weapons and rocket tests, and scientific and engineering expertise. Canberra was also heavily involved in the Blue Streak ballistic missile program. In 1955, a contract was signed with a British company to build the Hi-Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR). HIFAR was considered the first step toward the construction of larger reactors capable of producing substantial volumes of plutonium for nuclear weapons. However, Australia's nuclear ambitions were abandoned by the 1960s, and the country signed the NPT in 1970 (ratified in 1973).[33]
    • Flag of Brazil Brazil – Military régime conducted a nuclear weapon research program (code-named "Solimões") to acquire nuclear weapons in 1978, in spite of having ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1968. When an elected government came in to power in 1985, though, the program was ended.[34] On July 13, 1998 President Fernando Henrique Cardoso signed and ratified both the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), denying that Brazil had developed nuclear weapons.[35]
    • Flag of Egypt Egypt – Had a nuclear weapon research program from 1954 to 1967. Egypt has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[36]
    • Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany – During World War II, Nazi Germany researched possibilities to develop a nuclear weapon; however, for multiple reasons subject to some controversy, the project was not nearing completion at the end of the war. The research site was sabotaged by British spies and Norwegian partisans, which slowed down their research (see Norwegian heavy water sabotage). Historian Rainer Karlsch, in his 2005 book Hitlers Bombe, has suggested that the Nazis may have tested some sort of "atom bomb" in Thuringia in the last year of the war; it may have been a radiological weapon (rather than a fission weapon), though little reliable evidence of this has surfaced. Some of the German scientists involved also claimed to have sabotaged or falsely reported failures due to personal moral disagreement with Nuclear bomb development (See: German nuclear energy project).
    • Flag of Iraq Iraq – Iraq has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. They had a nuclear weapon research program during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1981, Israel destroyed Iraqi nuclear reactor Osiraq. In 1996, the UN's Hans Blix reported that Iraq had dismantled or destroyed all of their nuclear capabilities. In 2003, a multinational coalition headed by the United States invaded Iraq based on assertions indicating that it possessed weapons prohibited by the UN Security Council. Because of its refusal to fully cooperate with UN inspections, Iraq was strongly suspected by two UNSC members of having some form of nuclear program. However, in 2004 the Duelfer Report concluded Iraq's nuclear program was terminated in 1991.[37]
    • Flag of Japan Japan – Japan conducted research into nuclear weapons during World War II though made little headway.[38] (see Japanese atomic program). Japan signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. While Japan has the technological capabilities to develop nuclear weapons in a short time there is no evidence they are doing so. Although Japan's constitution does not forbid it from producing nuclear weapons, the country has been active in promoting non-proliferation treaties. There exists some suspicion that nuclear weapons may be located in US bases in Japan.[39] Japan is also the only nation in the world against whom nuclear weapons have been used in wartime, the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki having been destroyed on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
    • Flag of Libya Libya – Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. On December 19, 2003, after the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq and the October 2003 interception of Pakistani-designed centrifuge parts sent from Malaysia (as part of A. Q. Khan's proliferation ring), Libya admitted to possessing a nuclear weapon program and simultaneously announced its intention to end it and dismantle all existing weapons of mass destruction to be verified by unconditional inspections.[40]
    • Flag of Poland Poland – Nuclear research began in Poland in the early 1960s, with the first controlled nuclear fission reaction being achieved in the late 1960s. During the 1970s further research resulted in the generation of fusion neutrons through convergent shockwaves. In the 1980s research focused on the development of micro-nuclear reactions, and was under military control. Currently Poland operates the MARIA nuclear research reactor under the control of the Institute of Atomic Energy, in Świerk near Warsaw. Poland has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and officially possesses no nuclear weapons.
    • Flag of Romania Romania – Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1970. In spite of this, under Nicolae Ceauşescu, in the 1980s, Romania had a secret nuclear-weapons development program that was ended after his overthrow in 1989. Now Romania runs a nuclear power plant of two reactor units (with three more under construction) built with Canadian support. It also mines and enriches its own uranium for the plant and has a research program.[41]
    • Flag of South Korea South Korea began a nuclear weapons program in the early 1970s, which was believed abandoned after signing NPT in 1975. However there have been allegations that program may have been continued after this date by the military government.[42] In late 2004, the South Korean government disclosed to the IAEA that scientists in South Korea had extracted plutonium in 1982 and enriched uranium to near-weapons grade in 2000.
    • Flag of Sweden Sweden – During the 1950s and 1960s, Sweden seriously investigated nuclear weapons, intended to be deployed over coastal facilities of an invading enemy (the Soviet Union). A very substantial research effort of weapon design and manufacture was conducted resulting in enough knowledge to allow Sweden to manufacture nuclear weapons. A weapon research facility was to be built in Studsvik. Saab made plans for a supersonic nuclear bomber, the A36.[citation needed] However Sweden decided not to pursue a weapon production program and signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
    • Flag of Switzerland Switzerland – Between 1946 and 1969 Switzerland had a secret nuclear program that came to light in 1995. By 1963 theoretical basics with detailed technical proposals, specific arsenals, and cost estimates for Swiss nuclear armaments were made. This program was, however, abandoned partly because of financial costs and by signing the NPT on November 27, 1969.[43]


    • Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's nuclear ambitions began as early as 1950s when scientists considered both uranium enrichment and plutonium reprocessing. In 1956, the Vinča fuel reprocessing site was constructed, followed by research reactors in 1958 and 1959, for which the Soviets provided heavy water and enriched uranium. In 1966, plutonium reprocessing tests began in Vinča laboratories, resulting in gram quantities of reprocessed plutonium. During the 1950s and 1960s there was also cooperation in plutonium processing between Yugoslavia and Norway. In 1960 Tito froze the nuclear program for unknown reasons, but restarted it, after India's first nuclear tests, in 1974. The program continued even after Tito's death in 1980, divided into two components – for weapons design and civilian nuclear energy, until a decision to stop all nuclear weapons research was made in July 1987. The civilian nuclear program however resulted in a nuclear power plant Krško built in 1983, now co-owned by Slovenia and Croatia, and used for peaceful production of electricity.

    Other nuclear-capable states

    Virtually any industrialized nation today has the technical capability to develop nuclear weapons within several years if the decision to do so were made. Nations already possessing substantial nuclear technology and arms industries could do so in no more than a year or two, perhaps even as fast as a few months or weeks, if they so decided to. The larger industrial nations (Japan, Germany, Italy, Australia and Canada for example) could, within several years of deciding to do so, build arsenals rivaling those of the states that already have nuclear weapons. This list below mentions some notable capabilities possessed by certain states that could potentially be turned to the development of nuclear arsenals. This list represents only strong nuclear capability, not the political will to develop weapons. All of the listed countries have signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

    • Flag of Canada Canada - Canada has a well developed advanced nuclear technology base, large uranium reserves and markets reactors for civilian use. Through extensive power generation and production capabilities, Canada has the technological capabilities to develop nuclear weapons, possessing large amounts of plutonium through power generation. Canada could develop nuclear weapons within a short period of time if attempted. While no nuclear weapons program existed, Canada was technically well placed to proceed with a program as early as 1945 if they wished to do so.[46] Canada has been an important contributor of both expertise and raw materials to the American program in the past, and assisted in the Manhattan Project. In 1959, NATO proposed that the RCAF assume a nuclear strike role in Europe. Thus in 1962 six Canadian CF-104 squadrons based in Europe were formed into the RCAF Nuclear Strike Force armed with B28 nuclear bombs (originally Mk 28) under the NATO nuclear weapons sharing program; the Force was disbanded in 1972 when Canada opted out of the nuclear strike role. Canada accepted having American W-40 nuclear warheads under dual key control on Canadian soil in 1963 to be used on the Canadian BOMARC missiles. The Canadian air force also maintained a stockpile of AIR-2 Genie unguided nuclear air-to-air rockets as the primary wartime weapon on the CF-101 Voodoo all-weather interceptor after 1965. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau declared Canada would be a nuclear weapon-free country in 1971, and the last American warheads were withdrawn in 1984. Canada gave India its first research reactor, the CIRUS, in 1956 and this reactor was used to make the nuclear material used in India's first nuclear device. Canada also produces the renowned CANDU reactor and has sold the technology to several countries, including China, South Korea, India, Romania, Argentina, and Pakistan. However, there is no credible evidence that CANDU reactors were used to breed weapons grade material for either India or Pakistan. Canada nevertheless cut off nuclear trade with those two countries after they detonated nuclear weapons.
    • Flag of Germany Germany - While Germany is a signatory of the NPT, it has the means to equip itself rapidly with nuclear weapons. It has an advanced nuclear industry capable of manufacturing reactors, enriching uranium, fuel fabrication, and fuel reprocessing and it operates 19 power reactors producing one third of its total electrical needs. On the other hand, Germany has since 1945 made no serious attempts of acquiring or developing its own strategic delivery systems. Considerable numbers of nuclear weapons have been stationed both in East and West Germany during the Cold War, starting as early as 1955. Under the nuclear sharing scheme, West German soldiers would in theory have been authorized to use nuclear weapons provided by the US in event of a massive Warsaw Pact attack. Several dozen such weapons reputedly remain on bases in western Germany. Since 1998, Germany has adopted a policy of eliminating nuclear power, although slow progress had been made.[47] On January 26, 2006, the former defence minister, Rupert Scholz, said that Germany may need to build its own nuclear weapons to counter terrorist threats.[48] The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany also specified that Germany wouldn't acquire nuclear weapons.
    • Flag of Japan Japan - Japan makes extensive use of nuclear energy in nuclear reactors, generating a significant percentage of the electricity in Japan. Japan has the third largest nuclear energy production after the U.S. and France, and plans to produce over 40% of its electricity using nuclear power by 2010. Significant amounts of plutonium are created as a by-product of the energy production, and Japan had 4.7 tons of plutonium in December 1995. Japan also has its own centrifuge-based uranium enrichment program, which could also be used to create highly enriched uranium suitable for bombs. Experts believe Japan has the technology, raw materials, and the capital to produce nuclear weapons within one year if necessary, and some analysts consider it a "de facto" nuclear state for this reason. Japan has been quietly reconsidering its nuclear status because of the ongoing crisis over North Korean nuclear weapons.[49]
    • Flag of Italy Italy - Italy has operated a number of nuclear reactors, both for power and for research. The country was also a base for the Jupiter missile in the 1960s and later the GLCM nuclear-armed ground-launched variant of the Tomahawk cruise missile during the 1980s, despite strong public outcry. Several warheads are still in the NATO arsenal in Italy, mostly in form of airplane bombs. While no evidence suggests that Italy intends to develop or deploy nuclear weapons, such a capability exists - estimates from as far back as the mid-80s show that Italy could begin and complete a nuclear weapons program in as little as one year.
    • Flag of Lithuania Lithuania - Nuclear power reactors produce 77% of Lithuania's electricity and it has 2 of the world's most powerful reactors in its territory. However, one of these reactors was recently shut down. Lithuania has the means of legally acquiring fissile materials for power plants. Lithuania also has former launch sites for Soviet Union missiles. However, there appears to be no political will to develop nuclear weapons in Lithuania.
    • Flag of Netherlands The Netherlands - Operates a power reactor at Borsele, producing 452 MW, which satisfies 5% of its electrical needs and has an advanced nuclear research and medical isotopes facility at Petten. Several Dutch companies are key participants in the tri-national Urenco uranium enrichment consortium. By 2000 the Netherlands had about 2 tons of separated reactor grade plutonium. Even though the capability exists, there is no evidence for nuclear weapon production in the Netherlands. Also, in the light of the fierce opposition against nuclear weapon deployment in the 1980s, it is highly unlikely that such a programme will ever exist.
    • Flag of Norway Norway - Has since the 1950s operated two scientific reactors at Kjeller and Halden, and there are currently no known plans for constructing new reactors. According to environmental organization Bellona, Norway exported equipment and technology for plutonium enrichment and heavy water for use in reactors to India and Israel during the 1960s, contributing to their nuclear ambitions.[50] It is estimated Norway could complete a nuclear weapons program in a year with adequate funding, but public opposition to nuclear weapons is considerable.
    • Flag of Australia Australia - Australia has operated the HiFAR scientific & medical reactor since the 1960's. This reactor has been recently decommissioned and is about to be replaced with a new indigenously designed and constructed reactor. Australia was also the site of a number of UK nuclear tests in the 1950's and 1960's. Australia has repeatedly stated that it has no interest or intent to develop nuclear weapons and is a signatory to the NPT.

    See also

    Weapons of mass destruction
    WMD world map
    By type

    Biological warfare
    Chemical warfare
    Nuclear weapons
    Radiological weapons

    By country
    Algeria Argentina
    Australia Brazil
    Canada P.R. China
    France Germany
    India Iran
    Iraq Israel
    Italy Japan
    Netherlands North Korea
    Pakistan Poland
    Russia South Africa
    ROC (Taiwan) U.K.
    United States
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